• Coordination is considered as an essential element of administration.
  • Coordination is the integration, synchronisation or orderly pattern of group efforts in the institution towards the accomplishment of common objectives.
  • The concept of co-ordination is much broader than that of co-operation.
  • "Co-ordination is the orderly synchronization of efforts to provide the proper amount, timing, and directing execution resulting in harmonious and and unified actions to a stated objective"
  • "Co-ordination is the integration of  several parts into an orderly whole  to achieve the purpose of undertaking"
  • "Co-ordination is the integrating process in an orderly pattern of group efforts in an organization toward the accomplishment of a common objective"
Importance of co-ordination
Creative force
  • group efforts when coordinated create a result greater than the sum total of the individual and isolated.
Unity of direction
  • co-ordination ensures unity if direction by way of securing spontaneous collaboration on the part of different departments.
High employee morale
  • co-ordination enhances the general level of employee morale and provides satisfaction
Diverse and specialised activities
  • Total activities of an organisation are divided into several units and subunits on the basis of either product specialisation.
To avoid personal rivalries and prejudice
  • human organisation give rise in course of time to the development of personality politics among members.
To avoid conflict of interests
  • Subordination of individual interest to general interest often happen in organizations. There is need for coordination to avoid conflicts or overlapping in the work of employees or units or as organisation.
Techniques of co-ordination
  • Communication
  • Orderly plans
  • Supervision
  • Leadership
  • Departmentation
  • Direct contact
Types of co-ordination
  • Internal co-ordination
  • External co-ordination.
Hindrances to co-ordination
  1. Uncertainty of the future, as to the behaviour of the individual and the people.
  2. Lack of knowledge, experience, wisdom and character among leaders and their confused and conflicting ideas and objectives.
  3. Lack of administration skill and technique.
  4. Vast number of variables involved and the incompleteness of human knowledge, particularly with regard to men and life.
  5. Lack of orderly methods coordination..
  6. Size and complexity, personality and political factors.
  7. Lack of leaders with wisdom and knowledge pertaining to public administration
  8. Accelerated expansion of public administration of international dimension.
Coordination Applied to Nursing Management
  • Health care system consists of different categories of health personnel which requires intense coordination to function it effectively.
  • Nursing service is often the largest group of health personnel with wide range of functions and skills.
  • Effective coordination of nursing services and patient care will lead to patient satisfaction, better quality of service and patient outcomes.
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  2. Marquis B.L. ,Hutson C.J . Leadership roles and management functions in nursing– Theory and application. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2006.
  3. Douglass L M. The effective nurse- leader and manager. 5th ed. Mosby: St. Louis; 1996.
  4. Morrison M. Professional skills for leadership. Mosby: US; 1993.
  5. Ellis J R, Hartley C L. Managing and Co-ordinating nursing care. 3rd ed. Lippincott: Philadelphia;1995.
  6. Basvanthappa BT. Nursing administration. New Delhi: Jaypee brothers;2000.
  7. Cheryl L. Plasters, Seagull F J, Xiao Y. Coordination challenges in operating-room management: an in-depth field study. Amia annu  symp  proc; 2003.


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