Theories Based on Interactive Process

Major Concepts and Definitions
1. Interaction
  • A process of perception and communication
  • Between person and environment
  • Between person and person
  • Represented by verbal and  nonverbal behaviors
  • Goal-directed
  • Each individual brings different knowledge , needs, goals, past experiences and perceptions, which influence interaction
2. Communication
  • Information from person to person
  • Directly or indirectly
  • Information component of interaction
3. Perception
  • Each person’s representation of reality
4. Transaction
  • Purposeful interaction leading to goal attainment
5. Role
  • A set of behaviours expected of person’s occupying a position in a social system
  • Rules that define rights and obligations in a position
6. Stress
  • Dynamic state
  • Human being interacts with the environment
7. Growth and development
  • Continuous changes in individuals
  • At cellular, molecular and behavioural levels of activities
  • Helps individuals move towards maturity
  • Sequence of events
  • Moving onwards to the future
9. Space
  • Existing in all directions
  • Same everywhere
  • Immediate environment (nurse and client interaction
  • Observable behaviour
  • In health care system in society
  • Goal – to help individuals maintain health
  • Interpersonal process of action; reaction, interaction and transaction
  • Social beings
  • Sentient beings
  • Rational beings
  • Perceiving beings
  • Controlling beings
  • Purposeful beings
  • Action – oriented beings
  • Time – oriented beings
  • Dynamic state in the life cycle
  • Continuous adaptation to stress
  • To achieve maximum potential for daily living
  • Function of nurse, patient, physicians, family and other interactions
  • Open system
  • Constantly changing
  • Influences adjustment to life and health
Personal system Concepts
  • Perception
  • Self
  • Body image
  • Growth and development
  • Time
  • Space
Interpersonal system
  • Interaction
  • Transaction
  • Communication
  • Role
  • Stress
Social system
  • Organization
  • Authority
  • Power
  • Status
  • Decision making
  • Perceptions, goals, needs and values of the nurses and client influence interaction process
  • Individuals have the right to knowledge about themselves and to participate in decisions that influence their life, health and community services
  • Health professionals have the responsibility that helps individuals to make informed decisions about their health care
  • Individuals have the right to accept or reject health care
  • Goals of health professionals and recipients of health care may not be congruent
  • Begins with man
  • Man as a biopsychosocial being
  • In constant interaction with his environment
Focus of nursing
  • Man’s position on the health – illness continuum
  • Influenced by ability to adapt to confronted stimuli
  • a set of units so related or connected as to form a unit characterised by inputs, out puts, control and feedback process.
 Adaptational level
  • a constantly changing point, made up of focal, contextual and residual stimuli
  • represent the persons own standard of the range of stimuli, to which one can respond with the ordinary adaptive response
Adaptation problems:
  • the occurrence of situations of  inadequate responses to need deficits or excesses
Focal stimulus:      
  • stimulus most immediately confronting the person
  • must make an adaptive response
  • factor that precipitates behaviour
Contextual stimuli
  •  all other stimuli present
  • contribute to behaviour caused by the focal stimuli
Residual stimuli
  • factors that may be affecting behaviour
  • effect not validated
  • subsystem coping mechanism
  • responds automatically  through  neural-chemical-endocrine processes
  • subsystem coping mechanism
  • cognitive – emotive process
  • responds through    
  • perception, information
  • processing, learning
  • judgment and emotion
Adaptive (effector) modes
  • classification of ways of coping
  • manifests regulator and cognator activity
  • physiologic, self concept, role function and interdependence
Adaptive responses
  • Promote integrity of the person in terms of the goals of survival, growth, reproduction and mastery.
Ineffective responses:
  • Does not contribute to adaptive goals
Physiological mode
-involves body’s basic needs and ways of dealing with adaptation in relation to                                    
  • Fluid and electrolytes
  • Exercise and rest
  • Elimination
  • Nutrition
  • Circulation
  • Oxygen
-regulation includes:
  • The senses
  • Temperature
  • Endocrine regulation
Self – concept mode:
  • composite of belief and feeling
  • formed from perceptions
  • directs one’s behaviour
components are :
            the physical self
            the personal self
Role performance mode:
  • performance of duties
  • based on given positions in society
Interdependence mode:
  • one’s relation with significant others
  • support system
  • maintains psychic integrity
  • meets needs for nurturance and affection
  • from system theory
  • from Helson’s theory
  • from humanism
Assumptions from systems theory
  • a system is a set  of units so related or connected as to form a unit or whole
  • a system is  a whole that functions as a whole by virtue of the interdependence of its parts
  • systems have inputs, outputs and control and feedback processes
  • input, in the form of a standard or feedback (information)
  • living systems are more complex than mechanical systems and have standards and feedback to direct their functioning as a whole.
Assumptions from helson’s theory
  • human behaviour represents adaptation to environmental and organismic forces
  • adaptive behaviour is a function of the stimulus and adaptation level, that is, the pooled effect of the focal, contextual and residual stimuli
  • adaptation is a process of responding positively to environmental changes
  • responses reflect the state of the organism as well as the properties of stimuli and hence are regarded as active processes.
Assumptions from humanism
  • Persons have their own creative power
  • A persons behaviour is purposeful and not merely a chain of cause and effect
  • Person is holistic
  • A person’s opinions and view points are of value
  • The interpersonal relationship is significant.
  • A science and practice discipline
  • A theoretical system of knowledge
  • Prescribes a process of analysis and action
  • Related to the care of the ill or potentially ill person
  • A biopsychosocial being
  • A living, complex, adaptive system
  • With internal processes (the cognator and regulator)
  • Acting to maintain adaptation to the four modes
  • A state and a process of being and becoming an integrated and whole person
  • All the conditions, circumstances and influences surrounding and affecting the development and behaviour of persons or groups
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  7. Potter A Patricia, Perry G Anne (1992)Fundamentals Of Nursing –Concepts Process and Practice 3rd ed. London Mosby Year Book.


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