Nursing Path

CARING is the essence of NURSING. -Jean Watson

Nursing Path

Knowing is not enough, we must APPLY. Willing is not enough, we must DO. -Bruce Lee

Nursing Path

Treat the patient as a whole, not just the hole in the patient.

Nursing Path

Success is not final. Failure is not fatal. It is the courage to continue that counts. -Winston Churchill

Nursing Path

A problem is a chance for you to do your best. -Duke Ellington

Type of diabetes drug ‘may protect against serious kidney problems’

Prescribing sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors to treat type 2 diabetes may also help to lower the risk of serious kidney problems, according to Scandinavian researchers. They said that their findings provided further support for the use of SGLT2 inhibitors in a broad range…

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First pregnancy complications ‘linked to higher risk of future premature birth’

Study findings on complications during first and second pregnancies could help to identify women at increased risk of preterm delivery, according to Norwegian and US researchers. They found that women whose first baby was born at full term, but who experienced complications in pregnancy, had…

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NHS-funded nursing care rate to increase following ‘lengthy’ review

The NHS-funded nursing care standard weekly rate per person for 2019 to 2020 will increase and be backdated to 1 April 2019, the government has announced in the wake of a review. Organisations representing the care home sector welcomed the move but noted that it…

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Wellbeing package to help nurses ‘decompress and reflect’ at London trust

A London trust has brought in a package of wellbeing support for its nurses and other staff, including a supermarket, laundry service and “rest and recharge” zones to help relieve pressure during the coronavirus pandemic. Rosie Fitzsimons (pictured), head of the Nightingale Academy and consultant…

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Global nursing body issues warning on nurse mental health during Covid-19 crisis

There is a “vital and pressing” need for more mental health support for frontline nurses as a result of the coronavirus pandemic, according to international nursing leaders. The International Council of Nurses (ICN) highlighted the increased anxiety and stress for nursing staff working during the…

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ESIC CHENNAI MAY 2012


Psychology Quiz Series - 9


Study explores why Covid-19 disproportionately affects older people

A “unique” study is tracking the effects of Covid-19 in people aged over 70, in a bid to help develop a bespoke vaccine for older people. The University College London (UCL) project involves more than 600 older people who have signed up to the study,…

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News round-up: Catch-up on April’s top nursing stories

Miss any of the news affecting the profession during April 2020? Catch up with our summary of the main nursing headlines, most of which are linked at this time to coronavirus or Covid-19.   Exclusive: BME nurses ‘feel targeted’ to work on Covid-19 wards The…

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Lincolnshire hospital staff nurse succumbs to coronavirus

A well liked and respected staff nurse has died at a hospital in Lincolnshire run by the trust where he worked after testing positive for coronavirus, his employer has announced. Anujkumar Kuttikkottu Pavithran, known as Anuj Kumar to his colleagues, died on Monday. He worked…

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NHS leaders set out new measures to protect BME staff in pandemic

Nurses from black and minority ethnic (BME) backgrounds should be “risk-assessed” before being placed to work in environments where Covid-19 is present, NHS England leaders have urged. Their request was made in a letter to local NHS organisations today, laying out the “second phase” of…

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Nurses asked to share experiences of Covid-19 peak for major study

The second of three surveys planned as part of a comprehensive study into how the Covid-19 crisis has affected the nursing profession has been launched. Researchers behind the Impact of Covid-19 on the Nursing and Midwifery Workforce – or ICON – study are appealing for…

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Visa extension scheme opened to midwives and social care staff after criticism

Free visa extensions will now be granted to a wider group of health professionals, including midwives and care home nurses, it has been announced, following pressure from nursing leaders. The government previously pledged to give an automatic, one-year extension to international nurses, doctors and paramedics…

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Covid-19 deaths in community and social care to be reported daily

The number of Covid-19-related deaths occurring in settings outside of hospitals will be reported by the government on a daily basis for the first time from today, ministers have said. The announcement, made yesterday by health and social care secretary Matt Hancock, follows concerns that…

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Nutrition and Biochemistry Quiz Series - 7


Exclusive: Survey reveals negative impact of Covid-19 on nurse mental health

Almost all nursing staff are feeling more stressed and anxious than usual, with a third describing the state of their mental health as bad during the Covid-19 crisis, reveals a survey by Nursing Times. Half of nursing staff who responded to the survey considered the…

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Community nurse leader raises charity funds by walking marathon

Dr Crystal Oldman, chief executive of the Queen’s Nursing Institute, walked a marathon last Saturday to raise funds for the charity. The fundraiser was part of the national effort being organised by the London Marathon and UK charities – called Challenge 2.6 – that took…

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Normal NHS services to be ‘restored’ starting with cancer and mental health

The “most urgent” NHS services that were scaled back due to the coronavirus outbreak will begin to be restored as of today, starting with cancer and mental health support, the government has announced. Health and social care secretary Matt Hancock said the move would be…

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Social care and NHS ‘must be seen as one’ amid rising care home deaths

Renewed calls have been made for the boundaries between the NHS and social care to be broken down, following another sharp rise in care home deaths. In the week ending 17 April, 7,316 deaths were registered as having taken place in care homes in England…

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Deaths confirmed of three more nurses as UK observes minute’s silence

The deaths of three more nurses were confirmed today as the UK observed a minute’s silence to honour the key workers who have lost their lives during the coronavirus pandemic. Prime minister Boris Johnson was among those who joined the tribute at 11am as part…

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Microbiology Quiz Series - 7


Government will pay £60,000 to families of nurses who die in service

Families of health and social care professionals in the UK who die from Covid-19 in the line of duty will receive a £60,000 payment from the government. Health and social care secretary Matt Hancock last night announced the new “life assurance scheme”, which has been…

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UK to hold minute’s silence on Tuesday for nurses lost during pandemic

A minute’s silence will be observed tomorrow at 11am to honour the UK nurses and other key workers who have died during the coronavirus pandemic. The tribute has been organised by unions the Royal College of Nursing, the Royal College of Midwives and Unison, which…

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Warning over potential Covid-19-related syndrome emerging in children

An alert has been sent to clinicians to warn of a potential Covid-19-related inflammatory syndrome that could be emerging in children in the UK. The warning said that “over the last three weeks, there has been an apparent rise in the number of children of…

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New resource for ‘overwhelmed’ families living with dementia during lockdown

A new guide to help people living with dementia and their carers stay well during the coronavirus pandemic has been produced in recognition that this group is “disproportionately affected” by lockdown measures. The leaflet is based on "latest robust research" and is the first output…

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Johnson says UK ‘passing’ Covid-19 peak but risk remains of second spike

The worst of the Covid-19 outbreak in the UK looks to be over, prime minister Boris Johnson announced today as he returned to work following his own recovery from the virus. Addressing the nation from outside No 10 this morning, Mr Johnson said measures taken…

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Armed forces to test care home staff for Covid-19 using mobile units

Almost 100 military-run mobile coronavirus testing units are set to travel around the UK to increase access to testing for social care staff and other key workers, the government has announced. The units will respond to areas of highest demand and will travel to test…

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‘Treasured’ care home nurse dies after three weeks in ITU with Covid-19

A care home nurse in Surrey who “epitomised everything that nursing is about” has died after spending three weeks in intensive care with Covid-19. Larni Zuniga, 54, died on 24 April after being treated for the virus in an intensive care unit at St Thomas’…

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Anatomy and Physiology Quiz Series - 7


Nursing Management Quiz Series - 9


Nursing Research Quiz Series - 12


‘Danger of nurses quitting after Covid-19’ if mental health overlooked

The safety and mental health needs of nurses working during the coronavirus pandemic must be placed as a top priority to avoid a post-crisis exodus of traumatised staff, researchers have warned. The Covid-19 crisis is piling additional and unprecedented pressure on a nursing workforce who…
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PM’s nurses say they are ‘proud’ of recognition they received

Two nurses who were publicly thanked by the prime minister for saving his life have spoken out about their experience of looking after Boris Johnson while he was in intensive care. Luis Pitarma and Jenny McGee from St Thomas’ Hospital in London were singled out…
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Call for 10% pay bonus for nurses working during outbreak

Every health and care professional working during the Covid-19 pandemic should receive a 10% pay bonus and be offered guaranteed mental health support, an influential think tank has urged. These were among the recommendations made to the government by the Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR)…
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Uniforms should not be washed at home during Covid-19, warn scientists

Health worker uniforms should be washed in hospitals or by an industrial laundry, and not at home, to minimise the risk of contamination and transmission of Covid-19, according to expert scientists at De Montfort University Leicester. Dr Katie Laird (pictured above and right), reader in…
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Nursing Education Quiz Series - 8


Scottish Borders nurse dies in intensive care from Covid-19

A “proud” nurse who had worked for NHS Borders in Scotland for more than three decades has died from Covid-19. Angie Cunningham died on Wednesday in the intensive care unit at Borders General Hospital, located on the outskirts of Melrose, where she had worked as a…
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Coronavirus testing ‘extended to all essential workers’ with symptoms

All essential workers in England, as well as members of their households, who are showing symptoms of coronavirus will now be able to get tested, the government has announced. The move, revealed today during the daily government briefing, follows an expansion in testing capacity and…
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Reuse of PPE must be ‘temporary last resort’ in event of ‘acute shortage’

The reuse and reprocessing of personal protective equipment (PPE) “must be a last-resort temporary measure”, according to new guidance from infection prevention experts. They have drawn up a checklist of “actions and practical strategies” that can be used by infection prevention and control teams to…
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Nursing director will not be struck off after super-regulator review

A controversial ruling to suspend, rather than strike off, a bullying nursing director will stand, and will not go to the High Court, following a review by the Professional Standards Authority (PSA). The decision by the super-regulator followed the NMC's own decision to refer the…
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Nurse who ‘people would aspire to be like’ dies after Covid-19 diagnosis

Tributes have been paid to a nurse in Southampton who has died after testing positive for Covid-19. Katy Davis, 38, has been described by her colleagues as a nurse who “people would aspire to be like”. “Nursing was more than just a job to her"…
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Nurse creates online course to help staff ‘manage emotions’ during Covid-19

A specialist nurse has created a free online wellbeing resource for frontline health professionals, in a bid to provide staff with the tools they need to look after their mental health during and after the coronavirus pandemic. Sherezade Ruano, an arrhythmia specialist nurse in London,…
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Child Health Nursing Quiz Series - 8


Critical care lead made head of nurse training at Yorkshire Covid-19 hospital

The chair of the British Association for Critical Care Nurses, Nicki Credland, has been appointed to lead vital nurse training at a temporary Covid-19 hospital in Yorkshire. Ms Credland, head of department for paramedical, perioperative and advanced practice at the University of Hull, has also been…
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NHS refutes claims nurse shortages behind Nightingale hospital underuse

NHS officials have sought to play down reports of coronavirus patients being turned away from the Nightingale Hospital in London due to a shortage of nurses. The Guardian newspaper reported that 30 planned patient transfers to the temporary facility from established hospitals in the capital…
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Covid-19 ‘persists longer and peaks later’ in patients with severe disease

New study findings from China have reinforced the importance of carrying out strict management during each stage of severe Covid-19 to prevent the spread of coronavirus, according to researchers. They said their findings showed that Covid-19 virus persisted longer and peaked later in the respiratory…
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RCN calls on PM to give cash support to families of nurse victims of Covid-19

The Royal College of Nursing has urged the government to commit to providing financial support to the families of nursing staff who have died due to Covid-19. In a letter to the prime minister, RCN chief executive and general secretary Dame Donna Kinnair called for…
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Deaths of two more nurses confirmed as Covid-19 crisis continues

Heartfelt tributes have been paid to a popular mental health nurse and a much-loved staff nurse who have become the latest nursing professionals to die as a result of Covid-19. Colleagues and patients said they were devastated by the loss of Grant Maganga, who worked…
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Nurses ‘trolled’ online for raising concerns about Covid-19 and PPE

Nurses say they are being abused on social media for speaking out about problems they are facing during the Covid-19 pandemic, such as shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE). One nurse told Nursing Times that she went to the police out of fear for her own…
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Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing Quiz Series - 7


Global standardised data on nurse Covid-19 deaths needed ‘urgently’

The lack of standardised reporting around the world of Covid-19 infections and deaths in nurses must be addressed as a matter of urgency, the chief executive of the International Council of Nurses (ICN) has warned. In an interview with Nursing Times, Howard Catton said failure…
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‘Passionate’ agency nurse dies after coronavirus diagnosis

A “diligent” agency nurse and mother of two who worked at an acute hospital in Southport has died after testing positive for Covid-19. Colleagues and family members have paid tribute to Josephine Peter, a nurse at Southport and Formby District General Hospital, who died at…
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Deaths from all causes in care homes double over course of pandemic

A “deeply alarming” spike in deaths has been recorded in care homes in England and Wales as the Covid-19 pandemic continues. The number of coronavirus-related deaths taking place in social settings more than quadrupled over the space of a week, according to latest data from…
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‘Selfless’ diversity champion nurse Khuli Nkala dies from Covid-19

A 46-year-old mental health nurse who was passionate about stamping out race inequalities in the health sector has died from coronavirus. Colleagues have today paid tribute to Khulisani Nkala, who was known as Khuli and worked as a charge nurse in forensic services at Leeds…
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UK nurses feel unprepared for Covid-19 peak, finds new survey

Nurses in the UK are lacking the crucial training they need to tackle Covid-19, according to a survey, which also paints a picture of a nursing workforce under major psychological strain ahead of the peak of the pandemic. The findings have today been published from…
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MP calls for free British citizenship for frontline nurses amid Covid-19

An MP has written to the government calling for all non-British nurses and other workers on the frontline of coronavirus to be granted citizenship without exams or fees. In a letter to the home secretary, Plaid Cymru MP Hywel Williams urged the government to consider…
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Tributes for 10 nurses and midwives who have died in pandemic

Messages of condolence have poured in for more nurses and midwives from across the UK who have died under the Covid-19 crisis. Nursing Times has had the following 10 deaths confirmed and has previously reported on 17 nurses and one midwife who have died. Patrick McManus,…
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Maintaining routine vaccination programmes ‘critical’ during crisis

The threat posed by infectious diseases other than Covid-19 must not forgotten, warned European health leaders, who called on countries to keep routine vaccination schedules on track in the wake of the crisis. With health systems stretched responding to the pandemic and focus placed on…
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In memory: A list of nursing staff who have sadly died from Covid-19

An increasing number of nursing staff working in the UK have lost their lives during the coronavirus outbreak. Here, Nursing Times lists their names so that they might be remembered. We encourage you to post comments at the bottom of the articles if you wish.…
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Unions call for minute silence to honour key workers lost during pandemic

Calls have been made for a minute silence to be held on International Workers’ Memorial Day to honour and remember nurses and other key workers who have died under the Covid-19 pandemic. Those behind the move have urged the country to partake in a “respectful…
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Mental Health Nursing Quiz Series - 11


BLOOD CLOTTING FACTORS

The blood clotting factors in human body are as follows:

  1. Factor I       : Fibrinogen 
  2. Factor II      : Prothrombin (deficiency cause thrombophilia)
  3. Factor III    : Tissue factor (Thromboplastin)
  4. Factor IV    : Calcium 
  5. Factor V      : Labile factor (proaccelerin)
  6. Factor VI    : Unassigned/presence does not proved
  7. Factor VII   : Stable factor or proconvertin
  8. Factor VIII : Antihemophilic factor A (deficiency cause hemophilia A)
  9. Factor IX    : Antihemophilic factor B or Christmas factor (deficiency cause hemophilia B)
  10. Factor X     : Stuart - Power factor
  11. Factor XI   : Hegeman factor
  12. Factor XII : Fibrin stabilizing factor 



Community Health Nursing Quiz Series - 8


POLIO VIRUS


History:
  • Poliovirus - first identified in 1909 by inoculation of specimens into monkeys. The virus was first grown in cell culture in 1949 which became the basis for vaccines.


Viral properties:
  • 3 serotypes of poliovirus (1, 2, and3) but no common antigen.
  • Have identical physical properties but only share 36-52% nucleotide homology.
  • Humans are the only susceptible hosts.
  • Polioviruses are distributed globally. Before the availability of immunization, almost 100% of the population in developing countries before the age of 5.

Pathogenesis:
  • The incubation period is usually 7 - 14 days.
  • Following ingestion, the virus multiplies in the oropharyngeal and intestinal mucosa.
  • The lymphatic system, in particular the tonsils and the Peyer's patches of the ileum are invaded and the virus enters the blood resulting in a transient viraemia.
  • In a minority of cases,the virus may involve the CNS following dissemination.
  • It affect by following staging:
  1.  Multiplication:with in incubation period and in intestine and it enter by mouth
  2.  Initial viraemia: from intestine it spred to lymphatic system and cause viraemia by entering in blood
  3. Second viraemia: who fail to control second stage there occures.virus migrate to CNS and can cause CNS disturbance


Clinical manifestation:
There are 3 possible outcomes of infection:
  • Subclinical infection (90 - 95%) - inapparent subclinical infection account for the vast majority of poliovirus infections.
  • Abortive infection (4 - 8%) - a minor influenza-like illness occurs, recovery occurs within a few days and the diagnosis can only be made by the laboratory. The minor illness may be accompanied by aseptic meningitis
  • Major illness (1 - 2%)(paralytic poliomyelities) - the major illness may present 2 - 3 days following the minor illness or without any preceding minor illness. Signs of aseptic meningitis are common. Involvement of the anterior horn cells lead to flaccid paralysis. Involvement of the medulla may lead to respiratory paralysis and death.

Laboratory infection:
Virus Isolation
  • Mainstay of diagnosis of poliovirus infection
  • poliovirus can be readily isolated from throat swabs, faeces, and rectal swabs. It is rarely isolated from the CSF
  • Can be readily grown and identified in cell culture
  • Requires molecular techniques to differentiate between the wild type and the vaccine type.
Serology
  • Very rarely used for diagnosis  since cell culture is efficient. Occasionally used for immune status screening for immunocompromised individuals. 


Prevention:
No specific antiviral therapy is available. However the disease may be prevented through vaccination. There are two vaccines available.

Intramuscular Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV)
  • Consists of formalin inactivated virus of all 3 poliovirus serotypes.
  • Produces serum antibodies only: does not induce local immunity and thus will not prevent local infection of the gut.
  • However, it will prevent paralytic poliomyelitis since viraemia is essential for the pathogenesis of the disease.
Oral  Poliovirus Vaccine (OPV)
  • Consists of live attenuated virus of all 3 serotypes.
  • Produces local immunity through the induction of an IgA response as well as systemic immunity.
  • Rarely causes paralytic poliomyelitis, around 1 in 3 million doses.


Pharmacology Quiz Series - 9


Medical-surgical Nursing Quiz Series - 12


Fundamental of Nursing Quiz Series - 9


Psychology Quiz Series - 8


Nutrition and Biochemistry Quiz Series - 6


Microbiology Quiz Series - 6


Anatomy and Physiology Quiz Series - 6


Nursing Management Quiz Series - 8



Nursing Research Quiz Series - 11


Nursing Education Quiz Series - 7


PSYCHO SOCIAL CARE OF CORONA VIRUS DISEASE 2019

ISOLATION FACILITY OF COVID-19

GUIDELINES ON CLINICAL MANAGEMENT OF COVID - 19

Child Health Nursing Quiz Series - 7


Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing Quiz Series - 6


Mental Health Nursing Quiz Series - 10


Community Health Nursing Quiz Series - 7


Pharmacology Quiz Series - 8


Medical-surgical Nursing Quiz Series - 11


Psychology Quiz Series - 7



Fundamental of Nursing Quiz Series - 8


FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE BALANCE