Nursing Path

CARING is the essence of NURSING. -Jean Watson

Nursing Path

Knowing is not enough, we must APPLY. Willing is not enough, we must DO. -Bruce Lee

Nursing Path

Treat the patient as a whole, not just the hole in the patient.

Nursing Path

Success is not final. Failure is not fatal. It is the courage to continue that counts. -Winston Churchill

Nursing Path

A problem is a chance for you to do your best. -Duke Ellington

OUTCOME BASED EDUCATION

ASSESSMENT

CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES IN NURSING EDUCATION

Nursing education is a professional education, which has been undergoing continuous change since its evolution. Its dynamic change nature has been promoting continuous growth and development of trends. Some of the current trends have arisen from general education and some are seen due to change in nursing.

  1. The curriculum development in nursing education is based on competency and focusing on the output of the students. It invites students' participation and responsibility for learning.
  2. Innovations in teaching and learning like online programmes, use of technology, web-based learning, and computer-assisted learning are being used increasingly to promote intellectual personal, and career development.
  3. Educational quality assurance is a process of monitoring and evaluating efficiency and effectiveness of educational programme. As the nursing education is flourishing in government and private sector in India, there is the need for accreditation of the system and the process. Preparation of nursing personnel should be of good quality. So, this is the high time to prepare a quality index of nursing institutions all over the country by categorizing them into different grades, based on infrastructure and faculty profile.
  4. Nursing education is preparing the students to provide high-tech and high-touch patient care with the help of technology and sophisticated gadgets. 
  5. Current trends in nursing education are preparing global nurses, who have transnational acceptance.
  6. Nowadays, short-term programmes are becoming more popular than regular postgraduate programmes in nursing. At the same time,
    there are opportunities for higher education. Now, a nurse soon after completion of her basic professional qualification can pursue higher education.
  7. Nursing is emerging as specialty. Previously, nursing was considered to be general care, but now it has emerged as specialty  nursing to meet the needs of patients of different categories.
  8. Government's role in promoting higher education in nursing is getting diminished and private sectors are coming forward to play the dominant role in promotion of nursing education.
  9. Uniformity and standardization of nursing education is becoming possible, because of the initiative of the Indian Nursing Council.
  10. As a result of many upcoming colleges of nursing that are promoting graduate and post-graduate courses in nursing, the shortage of nurse educator is overcome to great extent. Now, there is the need for having qualified nursing personnel in administration and research, who can further promote growth of nursing education at in-service education level. 

Nursing Research Quiz Series - 10


Community Health Nursing Quiz Series - 6


Nursing Research Quiz Series - 9


Nursing Research Quiz Series - 8


Pharmacology Quiz Series - 7


Medical-surgical Nursing Quiz Series - 7


Fundamental of Nursing Quiz Series - 7


Nutrition and Biochemistry Quiz Series - 5


Microbiology Quiz Series - 5


Anatomy and Physiology Quiz Series - 5


Anxiety Disorders

Nursing Management Quiz Series - 7


Clozapine


Generic Name : clozapine
Brand Name: Clozaril, FazaClo, Gen-Clozapine (CAN)
Classification: Antipsychotic (Dopaminergic blocker)
Pregnancy Category B

Dosage & Route
Adults
§  Initial therapy: 12.5 mg PO once or twice daily. If using orally disintegrating tablets, begin with 1/2 (12.5 mg) of a 25-mg tablet and destroy the remaining half. Continue to 25 mg PO daily or bid; then gradually increase with daily increments of 25–50 mg/day, if tolerated, to a dose of 300–450 mg/day by the end of second week. Adjust later dosage no more often than twice weekly in increments < 100 mg. Do not exceed 900 mg/day.
§  Maintenance: Maintain at the lowest effective dose for remission of symptoms.
§  Discontinuation of therapy: Gradual reduction over a 2-wk period is preferred. If abrupt discontinuation is required, carefully monitor patient for signs of acute psychotic symptoms.
§  Reinitiation of treatment: Follow initial dosage guidelines, use extreme care; increased risk of severe adverse effects with re-exposure.

Pediatric Patients 
§  Safety and efficacy in patients < 16 yr not established.

Therapeutic actions 
§  Clozapine has relatively weak dopamine receptor-blocking activity at D1, D2, D3 and D5receptors but has high affinity for the D4 receptor. It has also blocking effects on serotonin, α-adrenergic histamine H1 and cholinergic receptors.

Indications 
§  Management of severely ill schizophrenics who are unresponsive to standard antipsychotic drugs
§  Reduction of the risk of recurrent suicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (not orally disintegrating tablet)

Adverse effects 
§  Drowsiness, dizziness, headache; nausea, vomiting, constipation; anxiety, confusion, fatigue, transient fever. Rarely, dysphagia, acute pancreatitis, cholestatic jaundice; orthostatic hypotension, tachycardia; seizures; hypersalivation.
§  Potentially Fatal: Rarely, thromboembolism. Reversible neutropenia which may progress to a potentially fatal agranulocytosis. Fatal myocarditis.

Contraindications 
§  History of bone marrow disorders including agranulocytosis, circulatory collapse, alcoholic or toxic psychosis, drug intoxication, uncontrolled epilepsy, severe renal, hepatic or cardiac disease; paralytic ileus. Pregnancy and lactation.

Nursing considerations
CLINICAL ALERT! Name confusion has occurred between Colazal (balsalazide); dangerous effects could occur. Use caution.

Assessment 
§  History: Allergy to clozapine, myeloproliferative disorders, history of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis or severe granulocytopenia, severe CNS depression, comatose states, history of seizure disorders, CV disease, narrow-angle glaucoma, lactation, pregnancy
§  Physical: T, weight; reflexes, orientation, IOP, ophthalmologic examination; P, BP, orthostatic BP, ECG; R, adventitious sounds; bowel sounds, normal output, liver evaluation; prostate palpation, normal urine output; CBC, urinalysis, LFTs, renal function tests, EEG

Interventions
§  BLACK BOX WARNING: Use only when unresponsive to conventional antipsychotic drugs; risk of serious CV and respiratory effects.
§  Obtain clozapine through the Clozaril Patient Assistance Program. For more information, call 1-800-448-5938.
§  Dispense only 1 wk supply at a time.
§  Monitor WBC carefully prior to first dose.
§  BLACK BOX WARNING: Weekly monitoring of WBC during treatment and for 4 wk thereafter. Dosage may be adjusted based on WBC count. Potentially fatal agranulocytosis has been reported.
§  Monitor T. If fever occurs, rule out underlying infection, and consult physician for comfort measures.
§  BLACK BOX WARNING: Monitor for seizures; with history of seizures, risk increases as dose increases.
§  Monitor elderly patients for dehydration. Institute remedial measures promptly; sedation and decreased thirst related to CNS effects can lead to dehydration.
§  Monitor patient regularly for signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus.
§  Encourage voiding before taking drug to decrease anticholinergic effects of urinary retention.
§  Follow guidelines for discontinuation or reinstitution of the drug.
§  Educate patient on seriousness of potential agranulocytosis.

Teaching points 
§  Weekly blood tests will be taken to determine safe dosage; dosage will be increased gradually to achieve most effective dose. Only 1 week of medication can be dispensed at a time and will depend on your white blood cell count. Do not take more than your prescribed dosage. Do not make up missed doses, instead contact your health care provider. Do not stop taking this drug suddenly; gradual reduction of dosage is needed to prevent side effects.
§  If you think you are pregnant or wish to become pregnant, contact your health care provider.
§  You may experience these side effects: Drowsiness, dizziness, sedation, seizures (avoid driving or performing tasks that require concentration); dizziness, faintness on arising (change positions slowly); increased salivation (reversible); constipation (consult your health care provider for correctives); fast heart rate (rest, take your time).
§  Report lethargy, weakness, fever, sore throat, malaise, mouth ulcers, and flulike symptoms.

Nursing Research Quiz Series - 7


Selection and organization of learning experience

Nursing Education Quiz Series - 6


Universal Health Coverage