Nursing Path

CARING is the essence of NURSING. -Jean Watson

Nursing Path

Knowing is not enough, we must APPLY. Willing is not enough, we must DO. -Bruce Lee

Nursing Path

Treat the patient as a whole, not just the hole in the patient.

Nursing Path

Success is not final. Failure is not fatal. It is the courage to continue that counts. -Winston Churchill

Nursing Path

A problem is a chance for you to do your best. -Duke Ellington

Record number of nurses leaving the NHS in England

More than 40,000 nurses have left the NHS in England in the past year, an analysis by the Nuffield Trust has revealed. The analysis, conducted by the think tank for the BBC, said that this is the highest number and proportion of nurses leaving the…

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Disappointment over decision not to extend Wales safe staffing law

Nursing leaders in Wales are “disappointed” at the Welsh health minister’s decision not to widen safe staffing legislation to cover community nursing and mental health inpatient wards. The issue was debated in the Welsh parliament on Wednesday afternoon, after a petition calling for an extension…

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Rising cost of living driving nurses out of the health service

The rising cost of living is driving nurses and other NHS staff out of the health service and into better paid jobs in restaurants and shops, a survey of trust leaders has found. Fresh concerns have also been raised around staff wellbeing, as more than…

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Nurse leaders play ‘important role’ in anti-racism, says NMC lead

Being anti-racist is “at the core” of the code of conduct of being a nurse, according to the chief executive and registrar of the Nursing and Midwifery Council. Andrea Sutcliffe said that senior nursing leaders have got “a really important part to play” in providing…

The post Nurse leaders play ‘important role’ in anti-racism, says NMC lead appeared first on Nursing Times.



Nurses investigated amid abuse at Manchester mental health hospital

Nurses working at the mental health unit in Manchester are to be investigated by the regulator, after footage of vulnerable patients being subjected to humiliation, verbal abuse and bullying at the hospital was aired on the BBC programme Panorama. Nurses and other staff at Edenfield…

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Bursary boost for some nursing students in Northern Ireland

Nursing and midwifery students in Northern Ireland who have caring responsibilities for families and children will receive a boost to their training bursary for this academic year. An increase of 15% will apply to means-tested elements of the bursary, and is intended to alleviate the…

The post Bursary boost for some nursing students in Northern Ireland appeared first on Nursing Times.



Strike ballot over pay opens for midwifery staff in Scotland

Midwives and maternity support workers in Scotland are being urged to vote in favour of industrial action in a ballot which officially opened today. Members of the Royal College of Midwives who work within the NHS in Scotland are expected to receive their ballot papers…

The post Strike ballot over pay opens for midwifery staff in Scotland appeared first on Nursing Times.



Fair recognition and reward ‘critical’ to nurse retention, says NHS chief

The chief executive of NHS England has recognised that there are tens of thousands of nurse shortages across the country and has vowed to help pull together a workforce plan that “gets it right” for the whole health service. In addition, Amanda Pritchard acknowledged that…

The post Fair recognition and reward ‘critical’ to nurse retention, says NHS chief appeared first on Nursing Times.



Mandatory learning disabilities training ready for launch in October

England’s most senior nurses have been urged to help drive a change in culture around the care of neurodiverse patients and support the implementation of new mandatory learning disability and autism training for health and care staff. The first phase of the Oliver McGowan Mandatory…

The post Mandatory learning disabilities training ready for launch in October appeared first on Nursing Times.



CNO concerned over strikes but vows to support nurses to use their voice

The chief nursing officer (CNO) for England has expressed her concerns about the potential for strike action among the profession over pay. However, she gave assurance that nurses would be respected and supported as they made “difficult decisions” in the coming weeks while union ballots…

The post CNO concerned over strikes but vows to support nurses to use their voice appeared first on Nursing Times.



Shadow health secretary spotlights importance of district nursing

A Labour government would put district nursing “at the heart” of its plan for the health service, the shadow health secretary has pledged. Speaking at the Labour Party’s annual conference in Liverpool on Wednesday morning, Wes Streeting slammed the Conservative government for failing to tackle…

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Experience of students during Covid-19 must be ‘reflected and understood’

Special attention must be paid to ensuring nursing students who trained during the coronavirus pandemic and, therefore, faced “significant challenges” are supported all the way through their careers, the chief nurse and deputy chief executive of Health Education England has urged. Professor Mark Radford, who…

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NMC approves changes to English language requirements

The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) has approved two key changes to its English language requirements. At its latest council meeting today, the regulator received the green light to make changes to its English language requirements, which it said it will prepare for implementation in…

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Exclusive: Nurse vacancies in NHS Wales climb almost 70% in a year

Nurse vacancies across the NHS in Wales are predicted to have jumped a concerning 69% in just one year, Nursing Times can reveal. The Royal College of Nursing in Wales has exclusively shared its annual report on the state of the nursing workforce in the…

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Temporary register to remain open for two more years, NMC confirms

The temporary nursing register introduced in response to the coronavirus pandemic will remain open for a further two years, it has been confirmed. The register, launched in March 2020, was due to close this week on Friday 30 September. “Anyone currently on the temporary register…

The post Temporary register to remain open for two more years, NMC confirms appeared first on Nursing Times.



NHS trusts in England offered extra funding to recruit overseas nurses

Health service trusts in England are to be given additional funding to recruit nurses from overseas amid record staff shortages and increased demands. For nurses recruited between 1 January and 31 March 2023, trusts will be able to claim £7,000 per overseas nurse from NHS…

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‘Culture transformation’ for troubled mental health trust

A mental health trust in East Anglia that has been repeatedly rated “inadequate” by the Care Quality Commission (CQC) has launched the next phase of a project to turn itself around and ensure a culture of equality, diversity and inclusion. The Norfolk and Suffolk NHS…

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Charity sees 211% rise in nurses seeking help with financial struggles

A charity that supports nurses and midwives who are struggling financially has seen a three-fold increase in people seeking help, its chief executive has said. John Orchard, who runs the Cavell Nurses’ Trust, said its support team had seen a 211% rise in the number…

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Super-regulator concerned over NMC’s repeated failures on FtP caseload

The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) has failed to meet its requirement to deal with fitness to practise cases (FtP) quickly enough for the third year in a row, a review by the healthcare super-regulator has found. The Professional Standards Authority (PSA) also found that…

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Labour pledge training places for thousands more nurses and health visitors

The Labour Party has pledged to create an additional 10,000 nursing and midwifery clinical placements and double the number of district nurses qualifying in England every year. In addition, the party has promised to train 5,000 more health visitors over a five-year period and to…

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Community Health Nursing Quiz Series - 34

Community Health Nursing Quiz Series - 33 

Community Health Nursing Quiz Series - 35

NCLEX Quiz Series

Anatomy and Physiology

Blood  C        Components of blood Red Blood Cell (RBC)   White Blood Cell (WBC)            Immunoglobulin (Ig) & Immunity      Platelets          Bleeding profile            Blood group    Cardiovascular SystemC Heart                    Chamber of hear                        Heart valve & Heart sound                 Conduct system          ECG            Blood Pressure           Blood vessels  Endocrine SystemC Concept of Endocrine system       Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid gland       Pancreatic Islets   Adrenalin gland          Urinary SystemC       Concept of urinary system            Bladder           Male Reproductive System   Skin     Eye      Nervous SystemC            Structure        Meninges        Parts of Brain  Spinal Cord     Cranial Nerves             Respiratory SystemC Basic Structure           Lungs   Respiratory Process            Lung Function Test     Digestive SystemC    Basic Structure           Mouth or Oral Cavity      Oesophagus and Stomach      Intestine         Pancreas         Liver            Miscellaneous Term   Skeleton SystemC     Basic Structure           Vertebral Column           Skull    Appendicular Skeleton           Joint    Cell and TissueC        Cell            Tissue              Muscle Tissue DNA and Chromosome          Miscellaneous

Fundamental of Nursing

Fluid Balance & Imbalance     Acid-base Balance and Imbalance     Electrolytes Balance & Imbalance  Blood Transfusion      Oxygen Administration          IV Infusion            Administration of Medication Lab Specimen Positions         Diagnostic Tools            Vital SignsC    Temperature Pulse   Respiration     Blood Pressure            Heat & Cold Application         Diarrhoea and Constipation   Enema Body Mechanism     Unconscious (GCS) & Dying Patient   Pre & Post Operative Nursing            Barrier Nursing           Nursing Process          Tracheostomy, ET Intubation            Nasogastric Lavage & Gavage Orthopaedic Procedure like Traction or            Bandages etc. Lumber Puncture        Paracentesis & Chest Drainage System            Urinary Catheterization & Irrigation  Bed Sore & Wound Care        Wound Care                Other Miscellaneous Procedure                    Nursing Theory, Ethics & As a Profession           Hospital Set up

Medical – Surgical Nursing

Blood  C Anaemia     Haemophilia   Leukemia        Hodgkin’s Disease            Cardiovascular SystemC Hypertension       Myocardial Infarction (Cardiac Indicator of MI)           ECG changes in MI      Medical Management of MI   Risk factor of MI & CAD    Angina Heart failure   Shock  Cardiac arrest & Heart Block  Ventricular Flutter, Fibrillation, Tachycardia        Valvular Defect           Venous Insufficiency            Vascular Disorder       Embolism,       Thromboembolism, DIC & DVT            Carditis           Endocrine SystemC  Hypo & Hyperthyroidism       Cushing’s Syndrome & Addison’s Disease         Pheochromocytoma   Diabetes Inspidus            Diabetes Mellitus (DM)          DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis)   Urinary SystemC            Renal calculi                Renal failure   Nephrotic Syndrome            Glomerulonephritis    BPH     UTI      Miscellaneous            SkinC Burn            Other Skin disorder

EyeC  Cataract & Glaucoma Nervous SystemC                 Meningitis      Epilepsy            Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS)          CVA or Stroke Parkinsonism  Bell’s Palsy            Myasthenia Gravis                 Trigeminal Neuralgia  Head Injury     Spinal Injury              Brain Tumour Miscellaneous Respiratory SystemC COPD               Epistaxis                     Pneumonia     ARDS   Pneumothorax           Other Miscellaneous Disorder         Digestive SystemC    Liver Disorder Hepatitis            Pancreatic Disorder    Disorder of Biliary System      Gastroenteritis, Gastritis and Peptic & Duodenal Ulcer Inflammatory Bowel Disorder (Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease)         Haemorrhoids Appendicitis               Other Intestinal Disorder                        Other Miscellaneous  Metabolism    Skeleton SystemC     Fracture            Osteoporosis  Osteomyelitis Arthritis          Oncology

Growth & Development

Concept of growth and development             Play     Common Health Problem of new born    Respiratory Distress   KMC in Hypothermia  Fontanel Breast feeding            APGAR Score   Physiological and Pathological Jaundice        Preterm and Post Term New Born          Developmental Milestone     Reflex

Child Health Nursing

Introduction to Child Health Nursing Chromosomal & Other Congenital Disorder            Central Nervous System        Cardiovascular DisorderC    Tetralogy of Fallot            Rheumatic Fever         Gastrointestinal DisorderC  Pyloric Stenosis            Celiac Disease Intussusception          Diarrhea          Megacolon            Phenylketonuria         Cleft Lip & Palate        Respiratory Disorder Genito-Urinary Disorder

Mental Health Nursing

Introduction to Mental Health          Psychopathology        Models of Care (ECT)            PsychopharmacologyC        Anti-Psychotic Mood Stabilizer (Lithium)                  Antidepressant           Sedative-Hypnotic Drug         Other Miscellaneous Drugs

Psychotherapy            Therapeutic communication  Psychiatric DisordersC            Schizophrenia BPD or Affective Disorder (Mania or Depression)     Phobia            Eating Disorder           Substance Abuse        Personality Disorder   Dementia & Delirium (Organic Disorder)                       Grief    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADH) or any Other Childhood Developmental Disorder   Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)    Anxiety Disorder         Other Miscellaneous Disorders

Community Health Nursing

Vaccination     Cold chain       BCG     Polio Vaccine  MMR   Vitamin           Other Miscellaneous Vaccine           Level of Prevention    Health promotion      Mother Child Health (MCH)    Health Communication          Contraceptives            Demography and Epidemiology                     Mortality and Morbidity            Indicator of health     Epidemiological Term Bio-Medical Waste     HFA, Health Delivery System and PHC        Health Planning in India Including National, International Health Agencies & Professional Bodies           National Health Programme     Environmental Hygiene          Occupational Health  Disaster Management  Vital Health Statistics Home visit      Miscellaneous

Communicable Diseases

Measles          Chickenpox     AIDS    Typhoid          Diphtheria and Shick Test            Tuberculosis               Malaria           Polio    Cholera           Mumps            Dengue           Rabies Leprosy           Whooping Cough (Pertusis)   STD            Plague Kala azar         Other Communicable diseases          Nutrition

Introduction to Nutrition                   Protein Carbohydrate Vitamins         Vitamin A            Vitamin B Complex                 Vitamin C        Vitamin D        Vitamin E            Vitamin K        Minerals         National Nutritional Programme       PEM            Miscellaneous

Maternal Nursing

Female Reproductive System Gynaecology   Pelvis               Fetal Head      Position, Presentation, Lie, Attitude and Embryonic Development     Placenta, Amniotic Fluid, Umbilical Cord and Fetal Circulation Normal Pregnancy                  Complication related to Pregnancy, DM During Pregnancy APH (Placenta Previa & Placenta Abruptia)        Abortion         Ectopic Pregnancy      Molar Pregnancy or Hydatidiform Mole   Rh Incompatibility      Twin Pregnancy         Labour Puerperium and its Complication (PPH)    Lochia Surgical Obstetric

Psychology and Sociology

Introduction to Psychology    Ego Defence Mechanism        Maslow’s Hierarchy of Need   Intelligence and their Test      Personality     Emotion          Learning            Miscellaneous

SociologyC    Introduction to sociology                   Marriage         Family

Microbiology

Sterilization    Infection         Microorganism

Pharmacology

Introduction to Pharmacology           NSAID              Opiates           Antibiotic            Poisoning, Antidote & Anaphylactic Reaction           Emergency Drugs            Body Mass Index (BMI)           Diuretic           Miscellaneous

Nursing Education

Introduction to Education & Philosophy       Teaching-Learning Process     Method of Teaching         Instructional Media (AV Aids) Measurement and Evaluation Other Miscellaneous Issue

Nursing Management & Administration

Introduction to Management & Administration       Quality Assurance & Audit            Delegation      Leadership      Span of Control          Supervision     Material Management (Inventory)       Financial Management (Budgeting)   Human Resource Management  Job Description           Record and Report     Ward Management            Other Miscellaneous Issue

Nursing Research and Statistics

Introduction to Nursing Research      Hypothesis     Types of Research Approach/Design       Research Variables     Sampling         Research Tools            Review of Literature   Other Miscellaneous Issue of Research Process            Statistics         Reliability and Validity           Scales of Measurement            Other Issues of Statistics



Mini-budget sparks fury: ‘Billions for bankers and nothing for nurses’

Plans unveiled in today’s government mini-budget have been met with fury by nursing leaders who have condemned the new chancellor for giving “billions to bankers and nothing to nurses”. Nurses would be “dismayed” by the move to prioritise top-earning bankers over NHS and social care…

The post Mini-budget sparks fury: ‘Billions for bankers and nothing for nurses’ appeared first on Nursing Times.



RCN refutes politician’s claims about Guernsey pay ballot integrity

The Royal College of Nursing has insisted that information shared with nurses on Guernsey that led them to reject a three-year pay offer was “accurate and fair”. The statement has been released in response to allegations made by a Guernsey politician who called into question…

The post RCN refutes politician’s claims about Guernsey pay ballot integrity appeared first on Nursing Times.



Family of nurses reflect on more than four decades at NHS trust

A family of nurses working at Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust has reflected on their more than 40 combined years of nursing at the organisation. The three nurses, Sushila Ohol and her daughters Sheetal Ohol and Sujata Blane work across different departments within the trust.…

The post Family of nurses reflect on more than four decades at NHS trust appeared first on Nursing Times.



Community Health Nursing Quiz Series - 33


Community Health Nursing Quiz Series - 34

NCLEX Quiz Series

Anatomy and Physiology

Blood  C        Components of blood Red Blood Cell (RBC)   White Blood Cell (WBC)            Immunoglobulin (Ig) & Immunity      Platelets          Bleeding profile            Blood group    Cardiovascular SystemC Heart                    Chamber of hear                        Heart valve & Heart sound                 Conduct system          ECG            Blood Pressure           Blood vessels  Endocrine SystemC Concept of Endocrine system       Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid gland       Pancreatic Islets   Adrenalin gland          Urinary SystemC       Concept of urinary system            Bladder           Male Reproductive System   Skin     Eye      Nervous SystemC            Structure        Meninges        Parts of Brain  Spinal Cord     Cranial Nerves             Respiratory SystemC Basic Structure           Lungs   Respiratory Process            Lung Function Test     Digestive SystemC    Basic Structure           Mouth or Oral Cavity      Oesophagus and Stomach      Intestine         Pancreas         Liver            Miscellaneous Term   Skeleton SystemC     Basic Structure           Vertebral Column           Skull    Appendicular Skeleton           Joint    Cell and TissueC        Cell            Tissue              Muscle Tissue DNA and Chromosome          Miscellaneous

Fundamental of Nursing

Fluid Balance & Imbalance     Acid-base Balance and Imbalance     Electrolytes Balance & Imbalance  Blood Transfusion      Oxygen Administration          IV Infusion            Administration of Medication Lab Specimen Positions         Diagnostic Tools            Vital SignsC    Temperature Pulse   Respiration     Blood Pressure            Heat & Cold Application         Diarrhoea and Constipation   Enema Body Mechanism     Unconscious (GCS) & Dying Patient   Pre & Post Operative Nursing            Barrier Nursing           Nursing Process          Tracheostomy, ET Intubation            Nasogastric Lavage & Gavage Orthopaedic Procedure like Traction or            Bandages etc. Lumber Puncture        Paracentesis & Chest Drainage System            Urinary Catheterization & Irrigation  Bed Sore & Wound Care        Wound Care                Other Miscellaneous Procedure                    Nursing Theory, Ethics & As a Profession           Hospital Set up

Medical – Surgical Nursing

Blood  C Anaemia     Haemophilia   Leukemia        Hodgkin’s Disease            Cardiovascular SystemC Hypertension       Myocardial Infarction (Cardiac Indicator of MI)           ECG changes in MI      Medical Management of MI   Risk factor of MI & CAD    Angina Heart failure   Shock  Cardiac arrest & Heart Block  Ventricular Flutter, Fibrillation, Tachycardia        Valvular Defect           Venous Insufficiency            Vascular Disorder       Embolism,       Thromboembolism, DIC & DVT            Carditis           Endocrine SystemC  Hypo & Hyperthyroidism       Cushing’s Syndrome & Addison’s Disease         Pheochromocytoma   Diabetes Inspidus            Diabetes Mellitus (DM)          DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis)   Urinary SystemC            Renal calculi                Renal failure   Nephrotic Syndrome            Glomerulonephritis    BPH     UTI      Miscellaneous            SkinC Burn            Other Skin disorder

EyeC  Cataract & Glaucoma Nervous SystemC                 Meningitis      Epilepsy            Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS)          CVA or Stroke Parkinsonism  Bell’s Palsy            Myasthenia Gravis                 Trigeminal Neuralgia  Head Injury     Spinal Injury              Brain Tumour Miscellaneous Respiratory SystemC COPD               Epistaxis                     Pneumonia     ARDS   Pneumothorax           Other Miscellaneous Disorder         Digestive SystemC    Liver Disorder Hepatitis            Pancreatic Disorder    Disorder of Biliary System      Gastroenteritis, Gastritis and Peptic & Duodenal Ulcer Inflammatory Bowel Disorder (Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease)         Haemorrhoids Appendicitis               Other Intestinal Disorder                        Other Miscellaneous  Metabolism    Skeleton SystemC     Fracture            Osteoporosis  Osteomyelitis Arthritis          Oncology

Growth & Development

Concept of growth and development             Play     Common Health Problem of new born    Respiratory Distress   KMC in Hypothermia  Fontanel Breast feeding            APGAR Score   Physiological and Pathological Jaundice        Preterm and Post Term New Born          Developmental Milestone     Reflex

Child Health Nursing

Introduction to Child Health Nursing Chromosomal & Other Congenital Disorder            Central Nervous System        Cardiovascular DisorderC    Tetralogy of Fallot            Rheumatic Fever         Gastrointestinal DisorderC  Pyloric Stenosis            Celiac Disease Intussusception          Diarrhea          Megacolon            Phenylketonuria         Cleft Lip & Palate        Respiratory Disorder Genito-Urinary Disorder

Mental Health Nursing

Introduction to Mental Health          Psychopathology        Models of Care (ECT)            PsychopharmacologyC        Anti-Psychotic Mood Stabilizer (Lithium)                  Antidepressant           Sedative-Hypnotic Drug         Other Miscellaneous Drugs

Psychotherapy            Therapeutic communication  Psychiatric DisordersC            Schizophrenia BPD or Affective Disorder (Mania or Depression)     Phobia            Eating Disorder           Substance Abuse        Personality Disorder   Dementia & Delirium (Organic Disorder)                       Grief    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADH) or any Other Childhood Developmental Disorder   Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)    Anxiety Disorder         Other Miscellaneous Disorders

Community Health Nursing

Vaccination     Cold chain       BCG     Polio Vaccine  MMR   Vitamin           Other Miscellaneous Vaccine           Level of Prevention    Health promotion      Mother Child Health (MCH)    Health Communication          Contraceptives            Demography and Epidemiology                     Mortality and Morbidity            Indicator of health     Epidemiological Term Bio-Medical Waste     HFA, Health Delivery System and PHC        Health Planning in India Including National, International Health Agencies & Professional Bodies           National Health Programme     Environmental Hygiene          Occupational Health  Disaster Management  Vital Health Statistics Home visit      Miscellaneous

Communicable Diseases

Measles          Chickenpox     AIDS    Typhoid          Diphtheria and Shick Test            Tuberculosis               Malaria           Polio    Cholera           Mumps            Dengue           Rabies Leprosy           Whooping Cough (Pertusis)   STD            Plague Kala azar         Other Communicable diseases          Nutrition

Introduction to Nutrition                   Protein Carbohydrate Vitamins         Vitamin A            Vitamin B Complex                 Vitamin C        Vitamin D        Vitamin E            Vitamin K        Minerals         National Nutritional Programme       PEM            Miscellaneous

Maternal Nursing

Female Reproductive System Gynaecology   Pelvis               Fetal Head      Position, Presentation, Lie, Attitude and Embryonic Development     Placenta, Amniotic Fluid, Umbilical Cord and Fetal Circulation Normal Pregnancy                  Complication related to Pregnancy, DM During Pregnancy APH (Placenta Previa & Placenta Abruptia)        Abortion         Ectopic Pregnancy      Molar Pregnancy or Hydatidiform Mole   Rh Incompatibility      Twin Pregnancy         Labour Puerperium and its Complication (PPH)    Lochia Surgical Obstetric

Psychology and Sociology

Introduction to Psychology    Ego Defence Mechanism        Maslow’s Hierarchy of Need   Intelligence and their Test      Personality     Emotion          Learning            Miscellaneous

SociologyC    Introduction to sociology                   Marriage         Family

Microbiology

Sterilization    Infection         Microorganism

Pharmacology

Introduction to Pharmacology           NSAID              Opiates           Antibiotic            Poisoning, Antidote & Anaphylactic Reaction           Emergency Drugs            Body Mass Index (BMI)           Diuretic           Miscellaneous

Nursing Education

Introduction to Education & Philosophy       Teaching-Learning Process     Method of Teaching         Instructional Media (AV Aids) Measurement and Evaluation Other Miscellaneous Issue

Nursing Management & Administration

Introduction to Management & Administration       Quality Assurance & Audit            Delegation      Leadership      Span of Control          Supervision     Material Management (Inventory)       Financial Management (Budgeting)   Human Resource Management  Job Description           Record and Report     Ward Management            Other Miscellaneous Issue

Nursing Research and Statistics

Introduction to Nursing Research      Hypothesis     Types of Research Approach/Design       Research Variables     Sampling         Research Tools            Review of Literature   Other Miscellaneous Issue of Research Process            Statistics         Reliability and Validity           Scales of Measurement            Other Issues of Statistics