Nursing Path

CARING is the essence of NURSING. -Jean Watson

Nursing Path

Knowing is not enough, we must APPLY. Willing is not enough, we must DO. -Bruce Lee

Nursing Path

Treat the patient as a whole, not just the hole in the patient.

Nursing Path

Success is not final. Failure is not fatal. It is the courage to continue that counts. -Winston Churchill

Nursing Path

A problem is a chance for you to do your best. -Duke Ellington

MCQ. Electrocardiogram (ECG)



1.      Electrocardiogram (ECG) was first developed by:
A. Steward
B.  Wilhelm His
C. Willem Einthoven
D. Hubert Mann

2. The classic ECG changes in myocardial infarction (MI) are:
A. T-wave inversion
B. ST-segment elevation
C. Development of an abnormal Q wave
D. All of the above

3. Tall-tented T waves and widened QRS are seen in:
A. Hyponatremia
B. Hyperglycemia
C. Hyperkalemia
D. Hyperphosphatemia

4. One specific ECG change in hypokalemia (low potassium level) is:
A. U wave (a positive deflection after the T wave)
B. ST segment elevation
C. Tall peaked T waves
D. Increased amplitude and widening of the QRS complex

5. The depolarization stimulus for the normal heartbeat originates in the:
A. Epicardium
B. His-bundle areas
C. Atrioventricular (AV) nodal
D. Sinoatrial (SA) node

6. An ECG report should contain:
A. Rhythm
B. Conduction intervals
C. Cardiac axis
D. A description of the QRS complexes, ST segments, T-waves
E. All of the above

7. A shortened PR interval, slurring (called a delta wave) of the initial QRS deflection, and prolonged QRS duration are charecteristics of:
A. Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome
B. Atrial tachycardia
C.  Left bundle branch block
D. Myocardial ischemia

8. ECG charecterized by PR interval which becomes longer with each succeeding ECG complex until there is a P wave not followed by a QRS is seen in:
A. First-degree Atrioventricular Block, type II
B. Second-Degree Atrioventricular Block, Type I
C. Second-degree Atrioventricular Block, type II
D. Third-Degree Atrioventricular Block

9. Ventricular muscle depolarization is represented by:
A. P wave
B. T wave
C. The QRS complex
D. U wave
E. PR interval

10. The characteristics of normal sinus rhythm include all the following, except:
A. Rate: 60 to 100 beats/min
B. Rhythm: Regular
C. P waves: Precede every QRS complex and are consistent in shape
D. PR interval: 0.12 to 0.20 second
E. QRS complex: 0.4 to 0. 8 second

11. Regarding placement of leads when recording ECG all are correct, except:
A. V1 - 4th intercostal space - right margin of sternum
B. V2 - 4th intercostal space - left margin of sternum
C. V3 - linear midpoint between V2 and V4
D. V4 - 7th intercostal space at the mid clavicular line
E. V5 - horizontally adjacent to V4 at anterior axillary line
 F. V6 - horizontally adjacent to V5 at mid-axillary line

12. Normal QRS width is:
A. 0.04 to 0.10 second
B. 0.12 to 0.20 second
C. 0.42 to 0.43 second
D. 0.08-0.12 seconds

13. P wave represents:
A. Depolarization of right ventricle
B. Depolarization of both atria
C. Depolarization of left ventricle
D. Atria to ventricular conduction time

14. Inferior wall ischemia produces changes in leads:
A. II
B. III
C. aVF
D. All of the above

15. Identify the rhythm.
 
A. Bradycardia
B. Normal EEG
C. Tachycardia
D. First degree heart block


Answer Key 
1. C
2. D
3. C
4. A
5. D
6. E
7. A
8. B
9. C
10. E
11. D
12. A
13. B
14. D
15. B

Family Structure

Traditional Family
  • It is composed of a father, a mother and their children. These people, married and living together in one house make up the nuclear family. Relatives, such as aunts, uncles, cousins and grandparents, who may or may not live with the nuclear family, are part of the extended family. This family group usually live in close geographic proximity to members of the extended family, who provided a sense of stability and belonging.
Single – Parent Families
  • Single parents may be never – married, separated, divorced or widowed. Most often, the single parent is divorced or widowed, but increasing numbers of never married men and women are choosing to become parents.
Alternate Family Structure
Cohabiting Families
  • It includes those individuals who choose to live together for a variety of reasons: relationships, financial need, changing values
Although the single person is not living with others, he or she is a part of a family of origin, usually has a social network with significant others. Majority of single adults living alone are found in to age groups: the young adult who has achieved independence and enters the work force and the elderly person, left alone through death of a spouse. (Taylor, et.al., 1989)

MCQ. Nursing Education



1. Andragogy refers to:
A. Adult learning
B. Action Learning
C. Experiential learning
D. Child learning

2. All that is learnt during school/college activities that is not a designated part of official curriculum is
A. The vocational curriculum
B. The hidden curriculum
C. The observed curriculum
D. The curriculum-as-experienced

3. Which of the following is NOT a feature of Process Model of curriculum?
A. Emphasis on means rather than ends
B. Learner should have part in deciding nature of learning activities
C. More individualized atmosphere
D. Assumption that learner makes unique response to learning experiences 
E. Makes assessment more precise

4. The International Council of Nurses (ICN)  was established in the year:
A. 1867
B. 1899
C. 1950
D. 1962

5. The International Council of Nurses (ICN)  is headquartered in:
A. New York, US
B. London, UK
C. Geneva, Switzerland
D. Toronto, Canada

6. Areas of philosophical inquiry include
A. Metaphysics concerned with questions about the nature of reality
B. Epistemology concerned with the nature of knowledge
C. Axiology concerned with the nature of values
D. All the above

7. Behavioral objectives model is also referred as:
A. Product model
B. Process model
C. Classical model
D. Competence model

8. The concepts of curriculum include:
A. The official curriculum
B. The hidden curriculum
C. The observed curriculum
D. The curriculum-as-experienced
E. All of the above
F. None of the above

9. Problem-based learning was first introduced in:
A. Case Western Reserve University (USA)
B. Mc Master University (Canada)
C. Manchester University (UK)
D. Stanford University (USA)

10. Which philosophical thought states that ultimate reality is spiritual rather than physical, mental rather than material?
A. Idealism
B. Realism
C. Pragmatism
D. Constructivism 

ANSWER KEY
1. A
2. B
3. E
4. B
5. C
6. D
7. A
8. E
9. B
10. A

Evening Care of Patient

I. Purpose
  1. To refresh the patient and prepare line him for sleep
  2. To promote muscular relaxation
  3. To prevent bedsore
II. Preparation of Patient and Environment
A tray containing:
  • Basin of warm water
  • Alcohol 70%
  • Soap in soap dish
  • Talcum powder
  • Hair comb or brush
  • Bath towel & wash cloth
  • Pitcher of warm water
  • Mouth wash tray with
  • Mouth wash solution
  • Tooth brush
  • Kidney basin
  • Linen required
III. Procedure
  1. Allow patient to brush his teeth, wash his face, hands and forearms. If patient is unable to help himself do it for him.
  2. Turn patient to her side, unfasten her camisa and bath her back. Massage back with alcohol 700/0 or (skin lotion) paying particular attention to the bony prominences and other reddish pots on the back. Dust with powder
  3. If the patient is wearing a binder, remove it when giving care to the back. Inspect dressing for bleeding or discharge and changes or reinforce p.r.n. Return the binder in place.
  4. Brush and comb hair. Protect back and camisa with towel
  5. Fasten patient’s camisa Move patient to one side brush crumbs or dirt from the bed.
  6. Tighten beddings.
  7. Fluff up pillows and replace
  8. Replace ice cap or hot water bag p.r.n
  9. Give bedtime medicine if any. Attend to all patient’s request
  10. Place signal cord or bell within the reach of the patient.
  11. Remove all unnecessary things from the room: trays, dishes, etc. Empty waste basket.
  12. Adjust screen or blinds and light.