Nursing History of the World



Instinctive nursing nursing born since birth along with the development of nursing human creation is influenced by the more advanced human civilizations, the growing nursing
Developmental influenced by: Care and treatment of antiquity
People in ancient times living in primitive conditions. However, they have been able to little knowledge and skills in caring for or treating. The job "caring" work based on instinct (instinct) animal instincts à à "mother instinct" (maternal), which is an instinct in which hinge on the maintenance of species (to protect children, caring for the weak)
à practically Care and treatment have been carried out by primitive people, for example:
a. Caring for and treating wounds
b. Lower the heat by giving a lot of drinking water or treatment with water (compress)
c. Opening absoes using sharp stones
d. Menhentikan bleeding by using hot rocks
e. Use herbs as treatment of disease

Effect of confidence in the care and treatment
Ancient human belief / religion "animism" linking the occurrence of this disease animist beliefs circuitry, so they assume that people suffering from pain caused by intruding spirits (the spirits) that. The people who pay attention to the signs of the disease à "expert" in taking action against the ill treatment. The experts called experts kemudiajn drugs in the treatment shaman = healer, among others, consider the following rules:


A. Natural Subjects
A belief advocated that nature itself provides clues about the drug to be used as a bleeding wound in a bandage or cloth give the red / red leaves. If the jaundice was given medicine to drink from the roots of plants or yellow skin.
B. Transmigration doctrine
A doctrine which believes that there is kekeuatanm power transfer. Example: At the time a woman will give birth, given the soaking water and leaves them wide open all the doors

Maintenance on some of the nation and the State
A. Egypt
Nation in ancient Egypt worshiped many gods. Famous among other gods Isis. They assume that this god took an interest in the sick and give help at the time the patient was tidur.Didirikanlah temple which is the first hospital in Egypt
Ketabiban
Ketabiban science of surgery has been known primarily by Egypt's ancient peoples (± 4800 BC). In performing his duties as a physician he used a splint (spalk), sanitary equipment, he has a knowledge of anatomy, Hygienr general and about drugs. In the books written in Papyrus therein includes approximately 700 kinds of prescription drugs from Egypt
 
B. Babylon and Syria
The science of anatomy and herb medicines have been known to the nation since centuries BC Babylon. In one article which states that in 680 BC people already know how to keep blood from his nose and treat jerawant in advance.
Nation worship the god of Babylon therefore, care or treatment based on these beliefs. 

C. Ancient Jewish
Jewish knowledge gained from many of the Egyptians. For example: ways to give treatment which is a famous person of Moses. He is also known as an expert on hygiene. Under his command the nation Yahgudi promote great interest to the general cleanliness and personal hygiene.
Health legislation became the basis for the Jewish nation of modern hygiene, where the ways and rules in accordance with the bacteriology of today, for example:
1. Inspection and peminilah food that will be in the eating
2. Held a method of disposal of human waste
3. Prohibition of eating pork because it can cause a disease
4. Notify the authorities if there is a dangerous disease, so that action can be taken

D. India
Indians (Hindus) in ancient times had been converted to Brahmanic religion, in addition to worship and ask for help to god (dikuil) to heal the sick. In India there have been hospitals, especially in the North when the government Pain Asoka, ± 8 Hospital, where most schools then made the treatment and care

E. China
Nation of China has come to know them gonorhoea venereal disease and syphilis. Vaccination has also been done since 1000 BC science of massage and psychotherapy.
People who are famous in ketabiban:
1) Seng Lung
Known as the "Father of Medicine, who specializes in internal medicine and has used drugs from plants and minerals (salts).'s Famous motto is Look, Listen, Ask, Pain.
2) Chang Chung Ching ± 200 Sm have been working on using bamboo lavement

F. Greece
Ancient Greeks worship and glorify many gods (polytheism), the famous god is the god who is considered as the god of medicine and god daughter named hygiene as the Goddess of health, hence arises the words higyene.
To the cult of the god of the temple was founded (1134 BC), who also serves as a treatment of the sick and maintenance done by the slaves.
Famous people in such ketabiban
1. Hippocrates (400 BC ± life) à father of treatment with the following services:
- Basic method of treatment until now
- The disease is not because the devil, but the destruction of the natural laws
- Develop a physical examination techniques
- To teach children about the ill food
- Encourage patients to be treated in a humanitarian asylum
- Teaching about the spirit of work, respect peers,, responsible for the sick man who became an oath hypocrates
2. Plato
Greek philosophers, the brain as a center of consciousness
3.Aristoteles
Philosophers, psychologists and biology

G. Rome
Hospitals in ancient Rome called Rome valentrumdinari found embedded in the swiss ex maintenance tools. Equipment for pots huknah selep place. Also found in surgical instruments for ex: knife, pincet, artery clamps, speculum. Famous Julius Caesar (101-44 BC). A guardian is the State which first recognized the teachers of hygiene and advise on health and hygiene

H. Ireland
Knowledge of treatment has long known BC. About Hospitals, a princess named Macha (3rd century) founded a hospital for poor people who are sick. The RS name Broin Beargh à distress homes

I. America
Simple hospital has been established by the nation Asteken big city in North America, is a good hospital and was the first hospital was founded in 1521 by Cortez from Mexico namely RS san Jesu Nazareno

° developmental time of the beginning of AD treatment
Prophet Jesus was born à "New Religion" religion BC (Nasrasni / Christian) religious character of the development of treatments à à teachings of compassion towards fellow human beings (attention and care to people distress - a state hospital)
Beginnings deaconess
Acolyte à deaconess in the church, give advice, treat the sick and visit the concentration camp.Deaconesses became one of the first women's institution of the Christian religious organizations who work and develop job à nurses supporting home care of the first.
Philantrop
À Philantrop men and women who have distanced themselves from the hustle of the world and gather in one place-monastic (male = monk; women = non)
Three women who contributed Morcella, Febicla, Paula

The beginning of the hospital.
Christianity developed in Rome, the glorious reign constantyn (325).
à Establishes building / special place to accommodate people displaced sick people who need help and care homes knew à xenodocheian = (xeno = guest) in Latin discussion guests; host à "Hospital" / hospital
Monastic hospitals
Is the union between the hospital / xenodochoion circuitry monasteries. Here the sick are treated by non (women) where the famous monastic hospital founded in the year 559, has approximately 200 non. The form of monastic hospital:
- Caring for the sick ward
- Building for people who need pertolonga, the disabled, poor, orphans
- Buildings and places where physicians and non-monk monk
- Work done by non-treatment of non-

B. The spread of religion

At the beginning of AD occurs spread of Christianity in Europe. This is a positive impact on the development of nursing. Progress was seen in the reign of Lord Constandne namely:
à XENODHOECIN or host (the shelter people in need, especially those who suffer from illness)
à Establishes famous Hospital in Rome Namely MONASTIC HOSPITAL
à In the mid-sixth century BC in Southwest Asia, the Middle East spread the religion of Islam.The Prophet Muhammad spread the religion of Islam abd VII AD which includes Africa, Southeast Asia, West Asia and parts of Europe are Spain and Turkey.
à In the developing wakti science: Science Certainly, chemistry, science, hygiene and medicine
Quality of nursing care activities have been started since the first Muslim nurse is Rufaidah era Prophet Muhammad, who is always trying to give the best service for clients in need without distinction of rich or poor
The following will be explained about the historical development of nursing in the days of Islam and Saudi Arabia in particular:
1. Early Spread of Islam / the Islamic period (570-632)
The development of this nursing period, in line with the war of the Muslims / Jihad (holy wars), gives the picture of nursing in this period. Medical system of treatment done to the house circuitry of patients with a prescription given by dokter.Dalam this period is known a nurse who was with the Prophet Muhammad is Rufaidah bint Sa'ad / Rufaidah Al-Asamiya
2. The period after the prophet / post-Prophetic era (632-1000m)
The history of nursing after the death of the Prophet Muhammad are rare. Document that there is more dominated by the days of medical itu.Dr. Al-Razi who is described as an educator, and a guide that also provides nursing services. He wrote two essays on "The reason why Some persons and the common people leave a physician even if he is clever" and "A clever physician does not have the power to heal all diseases, for that is not within the realm of possibility." In this time there was a nurse named "Al Assia"
3. Late Early to Middle Ages (1000-1500 AD)
In this time the Arab countries to build hospitals and introducing better treatment of the sick.There is a unique description in RS which spread in Islamic civilization and many of today's modern hospitals dianut5 until now, namely the separation between the living male patients and female, and female nurses caring for female patients and male nurses, treating only male patients
4. Modern Period (1500-present) Early leaders in nursing's development
This period was marked by the number of foreign expatriates (foreign nurses from Europe), America and Australia, India, Philippines) who enter and work in the RS-Eastern countries have a nurse tengah.Dimasa Middle East named Al-Khateeb Lutfiyyah, a nurse midwife Sauid first to get a Diploma of Nursing in Cairo and returned to negeranya.
Nursing Islamic current and future
Dr. H Arif Muhammad in Islamic spiritual nursing seminars in Akper Aisyiyah, August 31, 2004 Bandung, said that the problem is a natural healthy or ill as a test from Allah, so that men would not be free from disease. Healthy people often forget and neglect to make good in carrying out the commandments of God and ingratitude towards healthy
Task sekorang nurses, according to Dr. H. Arif, the task of nurses is to emphasize that patients do not despair let alone states do not have a longer life expectancy.
At the beginning of XVI century society changes the orientation of religious orientation to the orientation of the power. So many battles, exploration of natural wealth (the spirit of colonialism), as a result the church is closed, the place was closed Ibadan

C. War
à The war had a positive impact for nursing because of the many victims of war, it is very high demand of nurses.
à Crusade
Number of volunteer nurses made consisting of religious orders, women who followed her husband to the battlefield. Influence of the crusade against keperawtan is becoming known concept P3K.keberadaan nurses needed in the peace and began to arise opportunities for nurses working in social.

1. Hotel Dieu in Lion
Nurses were taken from a former street women or women who have repented
2.Hotel Dieu in Paris
Nurses drawn from religious orders after the French revolution abolished the religious order and the work nurses were replaced by free people who are not bound by agama.Pelopor famous nurses in this hospital is BOUZUET GENEVIEVE
3.ST. Thomas Hospital
Founded in 1123 AD, this hospital Florence Nightingale began her career in nursing update.
In the early nineteenth century social reform and women's changing role of nurses in many orang.Contohnya umum.Perawat began to believe that Florence Nightingale was a pioneer of nursing world.

Florencen Nightingale
Born in 1820 of wealthy and respectable family to pursue his career at home skait ST. Thomas Hospital keluarganya.Ia strongly opposed by nurses received education classes at the age of 31 years. Appointed by the British government to organize a military hospital nursing care in Turkey giving a chance for him to gain an achievement (Taylor. C, 1989)
After the war cream Florence Nightingale returned to England pioneered the founding of modern nursing schools 1840
v The contribution of Florence Nightingale
a. Establish standards of hospital management
b. Affirming that good nutrition is an important part of the upbringing keperawtan
c. Ensure that akupasional is a therapy for sick people
d. Identify the personal needs of patients and the role of nurses to meet
e. Mengemdbangkan occupational standards for female patients
f. Develop nursing education
g. Setting the two components of health and illness nursing
h. Assure that independent nursing and medical rofesi different circuitry.
i. Emphasizing the need for continuing education for nurses

Historical development of nursing in Indonesia
The development of nursing in Indonesia affected by social and economic conditions of occupation of the Dutch colonial government, the United Kingdom and Japan as well as the situation of Indonesian rule after Indonesia's independence
Distinguished v above:
1. The period before kemerrdekaan
§ The First Dutch colonization
At this time the nurse comes from the natives called VELPLEGEK called zieken oppaser as a hospital guard. Dutch government efforts in the health sector are:
Established the first hospital Ý Binnen Hospital in Jakarta in 1799
Established Ý hospital II Butten Hospital
Forming a health department Ý army (military gezond dients herds)
Ý Membentu People's Health Service (Burgerlijke gezandherds Dienst)
§ Age of British colonialism
Governor-general is very concerned people Rafles motto: Health is human. Its efforts in the health sector:
Ý general vaccination
Ý fix the way care patients with mental disorders
Ý Noting the health of prisoners
§ Japanese colonial era
Led to the development of nursing who is also in decline dark age world of nursing in Indonesia. Setbacks are shown in
à nurse jobs done by people who are not educated,
Leadership à Hospital was taken over by the Japanese people,
Drugs à very less
Plague à happen everywhere.
§ Age of independence
Efforts in the health sector in 1949 began to build houses and halls kesehatn skit. Year 1952 started construction of the school nurse school nurse teachers and junior-level nursing school founded in 1962 began a professional nursing education.

v 1962-present
Nursing began to grow rapidly
Year 1962 started a lot of standing colleges of nursing (MRNA) year nursing course in 1985 (PSIK) organized by the Indonesian university medical school graduates I in 1988
Impact: To improve nursing care, nursing process approach and enhance the role and functions of nurses.

Psychiatric nursing in Indonesia
Year 1800 has been collected patients in mental wards and treatment are penjagaan.RS soul first established in 1875 in Bogor Cilandak circuitry 400 orang.Rumah mental capacity both at Lawang in 1894 with a capacity of 3300 pasien.Rumah third asylum Prof. RSJ. Dr. Soeroyo in Magelang in 1923 with a capacity of 1400 patients.
New Psychiatric Nursing Education opened in September 1940 in Bogor with the course.Currently held in a mental care modern.Dibangsal-ward, treatment with shock therapy, using sleep medications circuitry music, sport and recreation.
Contexts of nursing itself heavily influenced by the history of nursing in Islam, Arab culture and trust in the health belief from the standpoint of Islam (Islamic health belief) and the values obtained from the education profession of nursing. Unlike the western view of nursing in the State, the Islamic spiritual belief is reflected in their culture.
In Indonesia, probably the same thing also happened to live how nursing and developing Islamic harmony line in the acceleration of nursing care demands, the complexity of disease, development of health technologies and health informatics in order to keep remembering and menteladani historical development of nursing was started by Rufaidah bint Sa'ad

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