Collective Symptoms

  • Positive symptoms: refers to presence of delusions, disordered thoughts and speech, and  tactile,  auditory,  visual,  olfactory  and   gustatory hallucinations
  • Negative symptoms : are deficits of normal emotional responses or of other thought processes, and respond poorly to medication which includes  flat or blunted affect and emotion, poverty of speech (alogia), inability to experience pleasure (anhedonia), lack of desire to form relationships (asociality), and lack of motivation (avolition).
  • Biological symptoms (somatic symptoms./melancholic symptoms.): refers to changes in sleep, appetite, libido, activity, diurnal changes in mood, anhedonia, early morning awakening, and psychomotor agitation or retardation.
  • Psychotic symptoms: presence of hallucinations  and delusions
  • First Rank Symptoms of Schizophrenia (Kurt Schneider)
    • Audible thoughts (thought echo)
    • Voices heard arguing
    • Voices heard commenting on one's actions
    • Somatic/thought passivity experiences (delusions of control)
    • Thought withdrawal
    • Thought insertion - Thoughts are ascribed to other people who intrude their thoughts upon the patient
    • Thought broadcasting (also called thought diffusion)
    • Delusional perception
  • Motor Symptoms of schizophrenia
  • Catatonia
  • Catalepsy
  • Automatic obedience
  • Negativism
  • Ambitendency
  • Mitgehen
  • Mitmachen
  • Mannerism
  • Stereotypy
  • Echpraxia
  • Psychological pillow
  1. Psychiatry, Third Edition. Edited by Allan Tasman, Jerald Kay, Jeffrey A. Lieberman, Michael B. First and Mario Maj. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2008.
  2. Sims, A. Symptoms in the Mind: An Introduction to Descriptive Psychopathology (3rd ed). Elsevier, 2002.
  3. Fish, F. Clinical Psychopathology, Signs and Symptoms in Psychiatry. Bristol: J. Wright & Sons. 1967.


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