1. Echolalia: imitation of words or phrases made by others.
    2. Verbigeration; repetition of words of phases while unable to articulate the next word in the sentence/senseless repetition of same words or phrases over and over again.
    3. Pressure of Speech: rapid, uninterrupted speech that is increased in amount.
    4. Mutism: inability to speak.
    5. Elective Mutism: refusal to speak in certain circumstances.
    6. Poverty of Speech: restricted amount of speech.
    7. Stuttering (Stammering): frequent repetition or prolongation of a sound or syllable, leading to markedly impaired speech fluency.
    8. Cluttering: dysrhythmic rapid and jerky speech.
    9. Clang Associations (Rhyming): association of word similar in sound but not in meaning (e.g. deep, keep, sleep)
    10. Punning: playing upon words, by using a word of more than one meaning (e.g. ant, aunt)
    11. Word Salad: incoherent mixture of words and phrases.
    12. Dysphasia: impairment in producing or understanding speech.
    13. Dysarthria: difficulty in articulation and speech production.
    14. Sensory Aphasia: nonsensical fluent speech due to lesion affecting Wernicke’s (receptive) area.
    15. Motor Aphasia: impairment in the ability to formulate fluent speech due to lesion affecting Broca’s (motor) area.
    16. Dysphonia: difficulty in voicing speech clearly, due to dysfunction of vocal cords or soft palate.
    17. Circumstanciality: over inclusion of details delaying reaching the desired goal.
    18. Coprolalia: forced vocalization of obscene words or phrases,
    19. Palilalia:  is characterized by the repetition of a word or phrase; i.e., the subject continues to repeat a word or phrase after once having said. It is a perseveratory phenomenon.
    20. Alogia: lack of speech output.
    21. Mutism: complete absence of speech.
  1. Psychiatry, Third Edition. Edited by Allan Tasman, Jerald Kay, Jeffrey A. Lieberman, Michael B. First and Mario Maj. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2008.
  2. Sims, A. Symptoms in the Mind: An Introduction to Descriptive Psychopathology (3rd ed). Elsevier, 2002.
  3. Fish, F. Clinical Psychopathology, Signs and Symptoms in Psychiatry. Bristol: J. Wright & Sons. 1967.


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