• Feeling: a positive or negative reaction to some experience
  • Emotion: a stirred up state due to physiological changes which occurs as a response to some event and which tends to maintain or abolish the causative event.
  • Mood: the pervasive feeling tone which is sustained (lasts for a length of time) and colours the total experience of the person.
  •  Affect: is the outward objective expression of the immediate cross-sectional emotion at a given time.
  • Euthymia: a normal mood state, neither depressed nor manic.
  • Cheerfulness: being in good spirits.
  • Perplexity: a state of puzzled bewilderment.
  • Anxiety: feeling of apprehension accompanied by autonomic symptoms (such as muscles tension, perspiration and tachycardia), caused by anticipation of danger.
  • Free-floating anxiety: diffuse, unfocused anxiety, not attached to a specific danger.
  • Fear: anxiety caused by realistic consciously recognized danger.
  •  Panic: acute, self-limiting, episodic intense attack of anxiety associated with overwhelming dread and autonomic symptoms.
  •  Phobia: irrational exaggerated fear and avoidance of a specific object, situation or activity.
  • Agrophobia: patients rigidly avoids situations in which it would be difficult to obtain help.
  • Social phobia -  Intense and excessive fear of being observed by other people
    • E.g eating or drinking in public or talking to the other member of sex
  • Specific phobia: irrational fear of a specific object or stimulus.
    • Acrophobia: fear of heights
    • Arachnophobia: fear of spiders
    • Claustrophobia: fear of closed spaces
    • Gamophobia: fear of marriage
    • Hemophobia: fear of blood
    • Zoophobia:  fear of animals
  • Agitation: severe feeling of inner tension associated with motor restlessness.
  • Irritable mood: easily annoyed and provoked to anger.
  • Dysphoria: mixture feelings of sadness and apprehension.
  • Depressed mood: feeling of sadness, pessimism and a sense of loneliness.
  • Anhedonia: lack of pleasure in acts which are normally pleasurable.
  • Diurnal variation: a variation in the severity of symptoms  (mood) depending on the time of the day
  • Grief: sadness appropriate to a real loss (e.g. death of a relative)
  • Guilt: unpleasant emotion secondary to doing what is perceived as wrong.
  • Shame: unpleasant emotion secondary to failure to live up to self-expectations.
  • Perplexity: anxious mood with bewilderment.
  • Ambivalent Mood: coexistence of two opposing emotional tones towards the same object in the same person at the same time.
  • Alexithymia: inability to, or difficulty in, expressing one’s own emotions.
  • Elevated Mood: a mood more cheerful than usual.
  • Elevated Mood:
    • Euphoria (Stage I): mild elevation of mood in which feeling of elevated mood with optimism and self-satisfaction not keeping with ongoing events. Usually seen in hypomania.
    • Elation (stage II):  (Moderate elevation of mood)  - a feeling of confidence and enjoyment, along with increased PMA. –a  feature of manic illness
    • Exaltation (stage III): (severe elevation of mod)intense elation with delusions of grandeur, seen in severe mania.
    • Ecstasy (Stage IV): (very severe elevation of mod):  a sense of extreme well-being associated with a feeling of rapture, bliss and grace. typically seen in delirious and stuporous mania
  • Expansive Mood: expression of euphoria with an overestimation of self-importance.
  • Grandiosity: feeling and thinking of great importance (in identity or ability).
  • Constricted Affect: significant reduction in the normal emotional responses.
  • Flat affect: absence of emotional expression.
  • Apathy: lack of emotion, interest or concern, associated with detachment.
  • Labile Affect: rapid, abrupt changes in emotions in the same setting, unrelated to external stimuli.
  • La Belle Indifference: inappropriate denial of expected affect and lack of concern about physical disability (seen in conversion disorders).
  • Inappropriate Affect: disharmony between emotions and the idea, thought, or speech, accompanying it.
  • Cyclothymia: There is cyclical mood variation to a lesser degree than in bipolar disorder.
  1. Psychiatry, Third Edition. Edited by Allan Tasman, Jerald Kay, Jeffrey A. Lieberman, Michael B. First and Mario Maj. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2008.
  2. Sims, A. Symptoms in the Mind: An Introduction to Descriptive Psychopathology (3rd ed). Elsevier, 2002.
  3. Fish, F. Clinical Psychopathology, Signs and Symptoms in Psychiatry. Bristol: J. Wright & Sons. 1967.


Post a Comment