Problem-based learning is student-centered teaching-learning strategy in which students collaboratively solve the problem and this reflects on their experience. In problem-based learning, the starting point is a problem, a query, or a puzzle that the learner wishes to solve (D.L. Bound, 1985).

It is a careful inspection of methods, which are permanently successful in formal education. In PBL, students depend for their efficiency upon the fact that they go back to the type of situation, which causes reflection out of ordinary life (John Dewey, 1916).

PBL is a process of acquiring and understanding of knowledge, skills and attitude in the context of an unfamiliar situation and applying that learning to the situation. There are four components of PBL:
  1. Non-lecture format and teacher acting as a facilitator.
  2. Presentation of real world situation or problem from ordinary life.
  3. Group work and group discussion.
  4. Student-directed solution of the selected p
  5. roblem.

Features of PBL
PBL is initiated by a problem. The selected problem is real and complex situation. Students are not given initially all the information that is needed to solve the problem. Students are encourages to work in group and they themselves identify the resources. Learning as a result of PBL is active, integrated, cumulative and connected.

Steps of PBL
  • Presentation of problem
  • Organization of ideas
  • Pose questions
  • Assign responsibilities for questions and discuss resources
  • Research question, summarise, and analyse findings
  • Recovene and report on research
  • Integrate new information and refine questions
  • Resolution of problem

Presentation of problem
Advantages of PBL
  1. It helps the student in acquiring the subject knowledge.
  2. Students are continuously motivated to learn. Retention is better when students learn by PBL method, as the method relates to real world.
  3. It promotes thinking and interpersonal skills in students.
  4. It promotes professionalism among students and fosters confidence and competence among them.
  5. Encourage integration of knowledge obtained from various subjects.


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