Teacher Educatin in India

INTRODUCTION

"If you educate a boy, you educate one individual,

If you educate a girl, you educate a teacher.

If you educate a teacher, you educate a community"

Dating back to the olden days, teachers as such were only the males from the Brahmin community and the shatriyas teaching the rich, but now the system is changed, we have female teachers also imparting the art of knowledge and skills. Down the lane, coming to the present the overall quality in education depends on the quality of teachers and that a sound program of professional education of teachers is essential for imparting desired type of education. As FRANCIS BACON said," knowledge is power" implies that teaching is an art that can be acquired through a series of well- designed series of activities, its imperative, therefore due emphasis should be laid on the education of the teachers.

DEFINITION
¨According to the Dictionary of education-C.V. GOOD(1973), teacher education is defined as "all formal and informal activities and experiences that help to qualify a person to assume the responsibility as a member of the educational profession or to discharge his responsibility most effectively.

¨According to the Encyclopedia Of Educational Research(1941), Walter.S.Monroe, defines teacher education as " The total education experiences which contribute to the preparation of a person but the term is completely employed to designate the program for the courses and other experiences offered by an educational institute for the announced purposes of preparing persons for teaching and other educational service and for contributing to their growth in competency for such service. Such teacher education programs are offered in teacher colleges, normal schools and colleges and universities.

¨ The Educational Commission (1964-1966) said, "a sound program of professional education of teachers is essential for the qualitative improvement of education. Investment in teacher education can yield very rich dividends because the financial resources required are small when measured against the resulting improvement in the education of millions."

¨According to PASSI(1997)," Teacher education means programs of education, research or training of persons for equipping them to teach at primary, secondary, and senior secondary stages in schools and includes non-formal education, part time education, adult education and correspondence education.


OBJECTIVES:
  1. To develop in prospective teacher educators necessary skills and competencies needful for the preparation of the teacher
  2. To impart the latest knowledge of the relevant disciplines
  3. To upgrade their knowledge and develop a critical awareness.
  4. To develop the capacity of elaboration, examination, interpretation and communication of ideas
  5. To enable them to undertake meaningful educational research for improving the condition of education and society.
  6. To develop among them the desire for life long learning for removing anachronism from them.
TYPES OF TEACHER EDUCATION
  • In-service education
  • Continuous education
CONTINUOUS EDUCATION

According to the commission on teacher education in U.S.A., "continued teachers education means much more than making up defects in preparation. It means continuous growth in the capacity to teach. It means a broadened understanding of human development and human living i.e., growth in one's capacity to work with others, with classroom teachers and principles in a variety of activities, with the administration, with parents and community leaders and with children age group.
IN-SERVICE EDUCATION
This is self explanatory; it refers to the education a teacher receives when he has entered the teaching profession after he has had his education or training in a teaching institute or college. It includes all the fields i.e. the refresher courses etc that he receives at different institutions.

FUNCTIONS:
  • Better understanding of the students
  • Building confidence
  • Methodology of teaching
  • Building a favorable attitude
  • Familiarizing with school organization
  • Creating social insight
  • Improving standards
  • Training for democracy
PRE-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION
  • Training school for elementary teachers
  • Pre-primary schools or Nursing institutions
  • Secondary training schools
  • Training colleges or colleges of education
  • Institutes of advanced studies in education
  • Training colleges for special education. example:- handicaps, deaf and dumb etc.
  • Training colleges for special subjects. Example:-preparing teachers in certain subjects like physical education, home science, craft etc.
  • Regional colleges of education
  • Comprehensive colleges
  • Summer schools -cum correspondence course.
SELECTION OF TEACHER EDUCATORS
  • Good physique
  • Linguistic ability and communication skills
  • A fair degree of general mental ability
  • General awareness of the world
  • A positive outlook on life
  • The capacity for good human relations
  • Recruitment first and training afterwards
  • Internship in place of practice teaching
  • Right tools for evaluation of pupil teacher performance . example:-self-assessment and pre -lessons and post -lesson discussion
  • Miscellaneous :-
  • *Modifications in teacher and education curriculum.
  • *Teacher education cadres
  • *Adequate staff for teacher training colleges
  • *Teacher education to be well-verse in educational technology
  • *Well planned programs
  • *Training to pupil teachers in organizing co- curricular activities.
  • *Teacher training colleges to remain their isolation.
IN-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS TYPES:-
  • State institutes of education
  • District institute of education and training(DIET)
  • National council of educational research and training (NCERT).
  • National institute of educational planning and administration (NIEPA)
STATE INSTITUTES OF EDUCATION
A chain of state institutes of education was started in 1964. At present U.P. is the only state with two such institutions at ALLAHABAD and LUCKNOW

PURPOSES & FUNCTIONS:
  • Teacher education.
This was set up by the national council for teacher education  in May 1973.
  • Provide various training course for supervisors of elementary schools or    elementary teacher educators.
  • Organize conferences and seminars to senior state education officers.
  • Provide conduct and supervise extensive services to training institutions for elementary teachers.
  • Organize research   in elementary education and provide correspondence course for teachers.
DISTRICT INSTITUTES OF EDUCATION  AND TRAINING(DIET)
These are organized to schedule pre-services  and in-service courses for elementary  teachers and for personnel working  in a non-formal and adult education

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH  AND   TRAINING (NCERT)
It is the apex organization at the national level which is designed to undertake research and training in education   at the school stage. It co-ordinates the entire work of the in-service teacher    education. It also formulates syllabi for the education or training of teachers at different levels.

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION (NIEPA)
This organizes in-service education for educational administration, planners and supervisors.

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF TEACHER EDUCATION (NCTE)

FUNCTIONS:-
  • ¨ To advise the government of India on all matters concerning teacher education, including pre-service and in-service training, evaluation of curricula for teacher education and periodical review of progress in reviewing of progress n revising the curricula.
  • ¨To advise the state   government on any matters referred to the council by them.
  • ¨ To review the programs of plan schemes, both central and state, concerning teacher education.
  • ¨To advise the government on ensuring adequate standards in teacher education .Any other matter entrusted to the council by the government of India.
KNOWLEDGE-BASE OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Teacher education, Eraut argues needs a map of professional knowledge for four reasons
  • ¨ To correct the over simplified notion about teacher education that are in circulation.
  • ¨To illuminate the debate about theory -practice links and the role of experiential learning.
  • ¨ To highlight aspects of knowledge that have been somewhat neglected in teacher education program.
  • ¨To shed light on the growing   debate about competency -based approaches to professional standards and  qualifications.
Knowledge must be seen as a means of teacher empowerment  rather than of gaining power .Hammond(1997) puts it 'empowerment  must occur through knowledge rather than through new controls that would enfranchise teacher at the cost of others ,especially parents ,who have a deep interest in children learning and success.

DRAWBACKS IN TEACHER EDUCATION:
  • Faulty methods of selection because of political, social and personal influences
  • Lop-sided curriculum
  • Irrelevant methodology of teaching
  • Neglect of study of education as a discipline
  • Inadequate training in practical skills
  • Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching
  • Isolation between the colleges of education and the schools
  • Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community
  • Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by the supervisors
  • Faulty methods of assessment of trainee's work
  • Under qualified teacher educators
  • Lack of physical facilities
  • Shorter working hours
TYPE OF EDUCATION IN THE 21 CENTURY:
  • Education as a liberating consciousness;
In this we can be freed from the thoughts, values, systems and structures that hinder authentic development.
  • Education must not alienate learners from their roots.
In this education enables us to discover and develop liberating elements which creates a more filly human life and appreciate our culture.
  • Education must attune us to diverse process at work and teach us the meaning of responsible consumption and caring.
In this we are asked to appreciate, share and nurture the life giving resources and processes.
  • Education is human conversation with life:
This implies about the needs ,problems ,pains ,joys, dreams, and hopes of people and the world a huge classroom where life is a continuing process of education.
  • Education must teach a "new value orientation" to motivate and inspire the new generation in the understanding of and reverence for life.
  • In short, education must encourage the values of compassion, the capacity to feel for others , to feel what it is like to grow under different or difficult circumstances ,and to appreciate the human person, irrespective of sex, creed, color ,or social status.
SHORT EVALUATION FORMAT FOR EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS  OF A TEACHER
CONTENTS MARKS GIVEN  (40)
1.    The knowledge about the topic 5
2. Appropriate use of A.V. AIDS
  • a) Principles of A.V.AIDS used
  • b) Appropriateness
  • c) Neatness
  • d) Clarity
5
  • 2
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
3.    Adequate information from journals added or not 8
4.    Organization  of content 8
5.    Interaction with the students 5
6.    Feedback of the students 6
7.    Discussion of the references used 3
CONCLUSION
The education of teachers has to be considered as an integral part of the system of education . It has to focus its attention on the new role of teacher educator. Hence education is a potent instrumentation for bridging about the desired changes in the society and teacher are to play  a crucial  role in this noble venture, human rights can be achieved and sustained mostly through education and training . That's why our vedic sages have rightly sung:
"SARVE BHAVANTU SUKHINAH,
SARVE SHANTU NIRAMAYAH,
SARVE BHANDRANI PASHYANTHU
MAA KASCHIDDU KHABHAGABHAVET."
This literally means:
(Let all be happy,
Let all be free from diseases,
Let all see the auspicious things,
Let nobody suffer from grief.)

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