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IV Fluid/Solution Quick Reference Guide

Description
  • Intravenous Solutions are used in fluid replacement therapy by changing the composition of the serum by adding fluids and electrolytes.
Listed below is a table which may serve as your quick reference guide on the different intravenous solutions.
Type
Description
Osmolality
Use
Miscellaneous
Normal Saline (NS)
0.9% NaCl in WaterCrystalloid Solution
Isotonic
(308 mOsm)
Increases circulating plasma volume when red cells are adequate
  • Replaces losses without altering fluid concentrations.
  • Helpful for Na+ replacement
1/2 Normal Saline (1/2 NS)
0.45% NaCl in WaterCrystalloid Solution
Hypotonic
(154 mOsm)
Raises total fluid volume
  • Useful for daily maintenance of body fluid, but is of less value for replacement of NaCldeficit.
  • Helpful for establishing renal function.
  • Fluid replacement for clients who don’t need extra glucose (diabetics)
Lactated Ringer’s (LR)
Normal saline with electrolytes and buffer
Isotonic
(275 mOsm)
Replaces fluid and buffers pH
  • Normal saline with K+, Ca++, and lactate (buffer)
  • Often seen with surgery
D5W
Dextrose 5% in water Crystalloid solution
Isotonic (in the bag)
*Physiologically hypotonic
(260 mOsm)
Raises  total fluid volume.Helpful in rehydrating and excretory purposes.
  • Provides 170-200 calories/1,000cc for energy.
  • Physiologically hypotonic -the dextrose is metabolized quickly so that only water remains – a hypotonic fluid
D5NS
Dextrose 5% in 0.9% saline
Hypertonic
(560 mOsm)
Replaces fluid sodium, chloride, and calories.
  • Watch for fluid volume overload
D5 1/2 NS
Dextrose 5% in 0.45% saline
Hypertonic
(406 mOsm)
Useful for daily maintenance of body fluids and nutrition, and for rehydration.
  • Most common postoperative fluid
D5LR
Dextrose 5% in Lactated Ringer’s
Hypertonic
(575 mOsm)
Same as LR plus provides about 180 calories per 1000cc’s.
  • Watch for fluid volume overload
Normosol-R
Normosol
Isotonic
(295 mOsm)
Replaces fluid and buffers pH
  • pH 7.4
  • Contains sodium, chloride, calcium,       potassium and magnesium
  • Common fluid for OR and PACU

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