Human Growth and Development

Definition

The term growth and development both refers to dynamic process. Often used interchangeably, these terms have different meanings. Growth and development are interdependent, interrelated process. Growth generally takes place during the first 20 years of life.; development continues after that.
Growth:
  1. Is physical change and increase in size.
  2. It can be measured quantitatively.
  3. Indicators of growth includes height, weight, bone size, and dentition.
  4. Growth rates vary during different stages of growth and development.
  5. The growth rate is rapid during the prenatal, neonatal, infancy and adolescent stages and slows during childhood.
  6. Physical growth is minimal during adulthood.

Development:
  1. Is an increase in the complexity of function and skill progression.
  2. It is the capacity and skill of a person to adapt to the environment.
  3. Development is the behavioral aspect of growth
 Freud’s Psychosexual Development Theory
STAGE
AGE
CHARACTERISTICS
1. Oral
Birth to 1½ y/o
Center of pleasure: mouth (major source of gratification & exploration) Primary need: Security
Major conflict: weaning
2. Anal
1½ to 3 y/o
Source of pleasure: anus & bladder (sensual satisfaction & self-control) Major conflict: toilet training
3. Phallic
4 to 6 y/o
Center of pleasure: child’s genital (masturbation) Major conflict: Oedipus & Electra Complex
4. Latency
6 y/o to puberty
Energy directed to physical & intellectual activities Sexual impulses repressed
Relationship between peers of same sex
5. Genital
Puberty onwards
Energy directed towards full sexual maturity & function & development of skills to cope with the environment
Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Theory
STAGE
AGE
CENTRAL TASK
(+) RESOLUTION
(-) RESOLUTION
1. Infancy
Birth-18 mos
Trust vs Mistrust
Learn to trust others Mistrust, withdrawal, estrangement
2. Early childhood
1½ to 3 y/o
Autonomy vs Shame & doubt
Self control w/o loss of self esteem Ability of cooperate & express oneself Compulsive, self-restraint or compliance. Willfulness & defiance.
3. Late childhood
3 to 5 y/o
Initiative vs guilt
Learns to become assertive Ability to evaluate one’s own behavior Lack of self-confidence. Pessimism, fear of wrongdoing.
Over-control & over-restriction.
4. School Age
6 to 12 y/o
Industry vs Inferiority
Learns to create, develop & manipulate. Develop sense of competence & perseverance. Loss of hope, sense of being mediocre. Withdrawal from school & peers.
5. Adolescence
12–20 y/o
Identity vs role confusion
Coherent sense of self. Plans to actualize one’s abilities Feelings of confusion, indecisiveness, & possible anti-social behavior.
6. Young Adulthood
18-25 y/o
Intimacy vs isolation
Intimate relationship with another person. Commitment to work and relationships. Impersonal relationships. Avoidance of relationship, career or lifestyle commitments.
7. Adulthood
25-65 y/o
Generativity vs stagnation
Creativity, productivity, concern for others. Self-indulgence, self-concern, lack of interests & commitments.
8. Maturity
65 y/o to death
Integrity vs despair
Acceptance of worth & uniqueness of one’s own life. Acceptance of death. Sense of loss, contempt for others.
Havighurst’s Developmental Stage and Tasks
DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE
DEVELOPMENTAL TASK
1. Infancy & early childhood
  • eat solid foods
  • walk
  • talk
  • control elimination of wastes
  • relate emotionally to others
  • distinguish right from wrong through development of a conscience
  • learn sex differences and sexual modesty
  • achieve personal independence
  • form simple concepts of social & physical reality
2. Middle childhood
  • learn physical skills, required for games
  • build healthy attitudes towards oneself
  • learn to socialize with peers
  • learn appropriate masculine or feminine role
  • gain basic reading, writing & mathematical skills
  • develop concepts necessary for everyday living
  • formulate a conscience based on a value system
  • achieve personal independence
  • develop attitudes toward social groups & institutions
3. Adolescence
  • establish more mature relationships with same-age individuals of both sexes
  • achieve a masculine or feminine social role
  • accept own body
  • establish emotional independence from parents
  • achieve assurance of economic independence
  • prepare for an occupation
  • prepare for marriage & establishment of a family
  • acquire skills necessary to fulfill civic responsibilities
  • develop a set of values that guides behavior
4. Early Adulthood
  • select a partner
  • learn to live with a partner
  • start a family
  • manage a home
  • establish self in a career/occupation
  • assume civic responsibilities
  • become part of a social group
5. Middle Adulthood
  • fulfill civic & social responsibilities
  • maintain an economic standard of living
  • assist adolescent children to become responsible, happy adults
  • relate one’s partner
  • adjust to physiological changes
  • adjust to aging parents
6. Later Maturity
  • – adjust to physiological changes & alterations in health status
  • – adjust to retirement & altered income
  • – adjust to death of spouse
  • – develop affiliation with one’s age group
  • – meet civic & social responsibilities
  • – establish satisfactory living arrangements
Levinson’s Seasons of Adulthood
AGE
SEASON
CHARACTERISTICS
18-20 yrs
Early adult transition
Seeks independence by separating from family
21-27 yrs
Entrance into the adult world
Experiments with different careers & lifestyles
28-32 yrs
Transition
Makes lifestyle adjustments
33-39 yrs
Settling down
Experiences greater stability
45-65 yrs
Pay-off years
Is self-directed & engages in self-evaluation
Sullivan’s Interpersonal Model of Personality Development
STAGE
AGE
DESCRIPTION
1. Infancy
Birth to 1½ yrs
Infant learns to rely on caregivers to meet needs & desires
2. Childhood
1½ to 6 yrs
Child begins learning to delay immediate gratification of needs & desires
3. Juvenile
6 to 9 yrs
Child forms fulfilling peer relationships
4. Preadolescence
9 to 12 yrs
Child relates successfully to same-sex peers
5. Early Adolescence
12 to 14 yrs
Adolescent learns to be independent & forms relationships with members of opposite sex
6. Late Adolescence
14 to 21 yrs
Person establishes an intimate, long-lasting relationship with someone of the opposite sex
Piaget’s Phases of Cognitive Development
PHASE
AGE
DESCRIPTION
a. Sensorimotor Birth to 2 yrs Sensory organs & muscles become more functional
Stage 1: Use of reflexes Birth to 1 month Movements are primarily reflexive
Stage 2: Primary circular reaction 1-4 months Perceptions center around one’s body. Objects are perceived as extensions of the self.
Stage 3: Secondary circular reaction 4-8 months Becomes aware of external environment. Initiates acts to change the movement.
Stage 4: Coordination of secondary schemata 8-12 months Differentiates goals and goal-directed activities.
Stage 5: Tertiary circular reaction 12-18 months Experiments with methods to reach goals. Develops rituals that become significant.
Stage 6: Invention of new means 18-24 months Uses mental imagery to understand the environment. Uses fantasy.
b. Pre-operational 2-7 years Emerging ability to think
Pre-conceptual stage 2-4 year Thinking tends to be egocentric. Exhibits use of symbolism.
Intuitive stage 4-7 years Unable to break down a whole into separate parts. Able to classify objects according to one trait.
c. Concrete Operations 7-11 years Learns to reason about events in the here-and-now.
d. Formal Operations 11+ years Able to see relationships and to reason in the abstract.
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development
LEVEL AND STAGE
DESCRIPTION
LEVEL I: Pre-conventional Authority figures are obeyed.
(Birth to 9 years) Misbehavior is viewed in terms of damage done.
Stage 1: Punishment & obedience orientation A deed is perceived as “wrong” if one is punished; the activity is “right” if one is not punished.
Stage 2: Instrumental-relativist orientation “Right” is defined as that which is acceptable to & approved by the self. When actions satisfy one’s needs, they are “right.”
LEVEL II: Conventional Cordial interpersonal relationships are maintained.
(9-13 years) Approval of others is sought through one’s actions.
Stage 3: Interpersonal concordance Authority is respected.
Stage 4: Law and order orientation Individual feels “duty bound” to maintain social order. Behavior is “right” when it conforms to the rules.
LEVEL III: Post-conventional Individual understands the morality of having democratically established laws.
(13+ years)
Stage 5: Social contract orientation It is “wrong” to violate others’ rights.
Stage 6: Universal ethics orientation The person understands the principles of human rights & personal conscience. Person believes that trust is basis for relationships.
Gilligan’s Theory of Moral Development
LEVEL
CHARACTERISTICS
I. Orientation of Individual Survival Transition Concentrates on what is best for self. Selfish.
Dependent on others.
Transition 1: From Selfishness to Responsibility Recognizes connections to others. Makes responsible choices in terms of self and others.
II. Goodness as Self-sacrifice Puts needs of others ahead of own. Feels responsible for others.
Is dependent.
May use guilt to manipulate others when attempting to “help.”
Transition 2: From Goodness to Truth Decisions based on intentions & consequences, not on others’ responses. Considers needs of self and others.
Wants to help others while being responsible to self.
Increased social participation.
III. Morality of Nonviolence Sees self and others as morally equal Assumes responsibilities for own decisions.
Basic tenet to hurt no one including self.
Conflict between selfishness and selflessness.
Self-judgment is not dependent on others’ perceptions but rather on consequences & intentions of actions.
Fowler’s Stages of Faith
STAGE
AGE
CHARACTERISTICS
Pre-stage: Undifferentiated faith
Infant
Trust, hope and love compete with environmental inconsistencies or threats if abandonment.
Stage 1: Intuitive-projective faith
Toddler-preschooler
Imitates parental behaviors and attitudes about religion and spirituality. Has no real understanding of spiritual concepts.
Stage 2: Mythical-literal faith
School-aged child
Accepts existence of a deity. Religious & moral beliefs are symbolized by stories.
Appreciates others’ viewpoints.
Accepts concept of reciprocal fairness.
Stage 3: Synthetic-conventional faith
Adolescent
Questions values & religious beliefs in an attempt to form own identity.
Stage 4: Individuative-reflective faith
Late adolescent & young adult
Assumes responsibility for own attitudes & beliefs.
Stage 5: Conjunctive faith
Adult
Integrates other perspectives about faith into own definition of truth.
Stage 6: Universalizing faith
Adult
Makes concepts of love & justice tangible.

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