MCQ. Fundamental of Nursing Questions with rational



Question
Answer
A 73-year-old patient who sustained a right hip fracture in a fall requests pain medication from the nurse. Based on his injury, which type of pain is this patient most likely experiencing?
1) Phantom
2) Visceral
3) Deep somatic
4) Referred

3) Deep somatic

Rationale:
Deep somatic pain originates in ligaments, tendons, nerves, blood vessels, and bones. Therefore, a hip fracture causes deep somatic pain. Phantom pain is pain that is perceived to originate from a part that was removed during surgery. Visceral pain is caused by deep internal pain receptors and commonly occurs in the abdominal cavity, cranium, and thorax. Referred pain occurs in an area that is distant to the original site.

Which pain management task can the nurse safely delegate to nursing assistive personnel?
1) Asking about pain during vital signs
2) Evaluating the effectiveness of pain medication
3) Developing a plan of care involving nonpharmacologic interventions
4) Administering over-the-counter pain medications


1) Asking about pain during vital signs

Rationale:
The nurse can delegate the task of asking about pain when nursing assistive personnel (NAP) obtain vital signs. The NAP must be instructed to report findings to the nurse without delay. The nurse should evaluate the effectiveness of pain medications and develop the plan of care. Administering over-the-counter and prescription medications is the responsibility of the registered nurse or licensed practical nurse.
Which factor in the patient's past medical history dictates that the nurse exercise caution when administering acetaminophen (Tylenol)?

1) Hepatitis B
2) Occasional alcohol use
3) Allergy to aspirin
4) Gastric irritation with bleeding

1) Hepatitis B

Rationale:
Even in recommended doses, acetaminophen can cause severe hepatotoxicity in patients with liver disease, such as hepatitis B. Patients who consume alcohol regularly should also use acetaminophen cautiously. Those allergic to aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can use acetaminophen safely. Acetaminophen rarely causes gastrointestinal (GI) problems; therefore, it can be used for those with a history of gastric irritation and bleeding.

Which action should the nurse take before administering morphine 4.0 mg intravenously to a patient complaining of incisional pain?

1) Assess the patient's incision.
2) Clarify the order with the prescriber.
3) Assess the patient's respiratory status.
4) Monitor the patient's heart rate.


3) Assess the patient's respiratory status.

Rationale:
Before administering an opioid analgesic, such as morphine, the nurse should assess the patient's respiratory status because opioid analgesics can cause respiratory depression. It is not necessary to clarify the order with the physician because morphine 4 mg IV is an appropriate dose. It is not necessary to monitor the patient's heart rate.

Which action should the nurse take when preparing patient-controlled analgesia for a postoperative patient?

1) Caution the patient to limit the number of times he presses the dosing button.
2) Ask another nurse to double-check the setup before patient use.
3) Instruct the patient to administer a dose only when experiencing pain.
4) Provide clear, simple instructions for dosing if the patient is cognitively impaired.


2) Ask another nurse to double-check the setup before patient use.

Rationale:
As a safeguard to reduce the risk for dosing errors, the nurse should request another nurse to double-check the setup before patient use. The nurse should reassure the patient that the pump has a lockout feature that prevents him from overdosing even if he continues to push the dose administration button. The nurse should also instruct the patient to administer a dose before potentially painful activities, such as walking. Patient-controlled analgesia is contraindicated for those who are cognitively impaired.

The nurse administers codeine sulfate 30 mg orally to a patient who underwent craniotomy 3 days ago for a brain tumor. How soon after administration should the nurse reassess the patient's pain?

1) Immediately
2) In 10 minutes
3) In 15 minutes
4) In 60 minutes


4) In 60 minutes

Rationale:
Codeine administered by the oral route reaches peak concentration in 60 minutes; therefore, the nurse should reassess the patient's pain 60 minutes after administration. The nurse should reassess pain after 10 minutes when administering codeine by the intramuscular or subcutaneous routes. Drugs administered by the intravenous (IV) route are effective almost immediately; however, codeine is not recommended for IV administration.

Which nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug might be administered to inhibit platelet aggregation in a patient at risk for thrombophlebitis?

1) Ibuprofen (Motrin)
2) Celecoxib (Celebrex)
3) Aspirin (Ecotrin)
4) Indomethacin (Indocin)

3) Aspirin (Ecotrin)

Rationale:
Aspirin is a unique NSAID that inhibits platelet aggregation. Low-dose aspirin therapy is commonly administered to decrease the risk of thrombophlebitis, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Ibuprofen, celecoxib, and indomethacin are NSAIDs, but they do not inhibit platelet aggregation.

A client who is receiving epidural analgesia complains of nausea and loss of motor function in his legs. The nurse obtains his blood pressure and notes a drop in his blood pressure from the previous reading. Which complication is the patient most likely experiencing?

1) Infection at the catheter insertion site
2) Side effect of the epidural analgesic
3) Epidural catheter migration
4) Spinal cord damage


3) Epidural catheter migration

Rationale:
The patient is exhibiting signs of epidural catheter migration, which include nausea, a decrease in blood pressure, and loss of motor function without an identifiable cause. Signs of infection at the catheter site include redness, swelling, and drainage. Loss of motor function is not a typical side effect associated with epidural analgesics. These are common signs of catheter migration, not spinal cord damage.

Which of the following clients is experiencing an abnormal change in vital signs? A client whose (select all that apply):

1) Blood pressure (BP) was 132/80 mm Hg sitting and is 120/60 mm Hg upon standing
2) Rectal temperature is 97.9°F in the morning and 99.2°F in the evening
3) Heart rate was 76 before eating and is 60 after eating
4) Respiratory rate was 14 when standing and is 22 after walking


1) Blood pressure (BP) was 132/80 mm Hg sitting and is 120/60 mm Hg upon standing
3) Heart rate was 76 before eating and is 60 after eating

Rationale:
The BP change is abnormal; a BP change greater than 10 mm Hg may indicate postural hypotension. The change in heart rate is abnormal; heart rate usually increases slightly after eating rather than decreasing. The temperatures are within normal range for the rectal route, and temperature increases throughout the day. It is normal to have an increased respiratory rate after exercise.

The nurse assesses clients' breath sounds. Which one requires immediate medical attention? A client who has:

1) Crackles
2) Rhonchi
3) Stridor
4) Wheezes


3) Stridor

Rationale:
Stridor is a sign of respiratory distress, possibly airway obstruction. Crackles and rhonchi indicate fluid in the lung; wheezes are caused by narrowing of the airway. Crackles, rhonchi, and wheezes indicate respiratory illness and are potentially serious but do not necessarily indicate respiratory distress that requires immediate medical attention.

The nurse assesses the client's pedal pulses as having a pulse volume of 1 on a scale of 0 to 3. Based on this assessment finding, it would be important for the nurse to also assess the:

1) Pulse deficit
2) Blood pressure
3) Apical pulse
4) Pulse pressure


2) Blood pressure

Rationale:
If the leg pulses are weak, the nurse should assess the blood pressure in order to further explore the reason for the low pulse volume. If the blood pressure is low, then a low pulse volume would be expected. The pulse deficit is the difference between the apical and radial pulse. The apical pulse would not be helpful to assess peripheral circulation. The pulse pressure is the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures.

Which of the following clients has indications of orthostatic hypotension? A client whose blood pressure is:

1) 118/68 when standing and 110/72 when lying down
2) 140/80, HR 82 bpm when sitting and 136/76, HR 98 bpm when standing
3) 126/72 lying down and 133/80 when sitting, and reports shortness of breath
4) 146/88 when lying down and 130/78 when standing, and reports feeling dizzy


4) 146/88 when lying down and 130/78 when standing, and reports feeling dizzy

Rationale:
Orthostatic hypotension is a drop of 10 mm Hg or more in blood pressure upon moving to a standing position, with complaints of feeling dizzy and/or faint.

A client who has experienced prolonged exposure to the cold is admitted to the hospital. Which method of taking a temperature would be most appropriate for this client?

1) Axillary with an electronic thermometer
2) Oral with a glass thermometer
3) Rectal with an electronic thermometer
4) Tympanic with an infrared thermometer


3) Rectal with an electronic thermometer

Rationale:
The rectal route is the most accurate for assessing core temperature, especially when it is critical to get an accurate temperature. Therefore, in this situation it is preferred. Temperature is a particularly relevant data point for this client with hypothermia as it indicates the patient's baseline status and response to treatment. The electronic thermometer is safer than glass and is relatively accurate. Mercury thermometers are no longer used in the hospital setting. The accuracy of tympanic thermometers is debatable.

Which of the following clients would have the most difficulty maintaining thermoregulation?

1) Young child playing soccer during the summer
2) Middle-aged adult snow skiing
3) Young adult playing golf on a hot day
4) Older adult raking leaves on a cold day


4) Older adult raking leaves on a cold day

Rationale:
Older adults have more difficulty maintaining body heat because of their slower metabolism, loss of subcutaneous fat, and decreased vasomotor control.

Which of the following clients should have an apical pulse taken? A client who is:

1) Febrile and has a radial pulse of 100 bpm
2) A runner who has a radial pulse of 62 bpm
3) An infant with no history of cardiac defect
4) An elderly adult who is taking antianxiety medication


3) An infant with no history of cardiac defect

Rationale:
An apical pulse should be taken if the radial pulse is weak and/or irregular, if the rate is <60 or >100, if the patient is on cardiac medications, or when assessing children up to 3 years. It is difficult to palpate a peripheral pulse on infants and young children.

Which situation requires intrapersonal communication?

1) Staff meetings
2) Positive self-talk
3) Shift report
4) Wound care committee meeting


2) Positive self-talk

Rationale:
The nurse engaging in positive self-talk is using intrapersonal communication—conscious internal dialogue. Staff meetings, shift report, and a committee meeting are all examples of group or interpersonal communication.

The nurse suspects that a patient is being physically abused at home. What is the best environment in which to discuss the possibility of abusive events?

1) The patient's shared semiprivate room
2) The hallway outside the patient's room
3) An empty corner at the nurse's station
4) A conference room at the end of the hall


4) A conference room at the end of the hall

Rationale:
The best environment in which to discuss sensitive matters is a quiet room where conversation can occur in private, particularly when the space is nonthreatening. The patient might be distracted if conversation takes place in a room where others (e.g., patients and visitors) are present. The hallway outside the patient's room and the nurses' station are public areas and should not be used for private conversation.

A patient is admitted to the medical surgical floor with a kidney infection. The nurse introduces herself to the patient and begins her admission assessment. Which goal is most appropriate for this phase of the nurse-patient relationship? The patient will be able to:

1) Describe how to operate the bed and call for the nurse.
2) Discuss communication patterns and roles within the family.
3) Openly express his concerns about the hospitalization.
4) State expectations related to discharge.


1) Describe how to operate the bed and call for the nurse.

Rationale:
This is the orientation phase of the relationship. The orientation phase begins when the nurse introduces herself to the patient and begins to gather data. In this phase, the nurse and patient are getting to know each other. As part of the orientation phase, the nurse will orient the patient to the hospital room and routines. In the preinteraction phase, the nurse gathers information about the patient before she meets him. Discussion of personal information, particularly if sensitive or complex, is suitable for the working phase of the nurse-patient interaction. The patient expressing feelings and concerns also occurs during the working phase. During the working phase, care is communicated, thoughts and feelings are expressed, and honest verbal and nonverbal communication occurs. Stating expectations related to discharge is most appropriate for the termination phase—the conclusion of the relationship.

A local church organizes a group for people who are having difficulty coping with the death of a loved one. Which type of group has been organized?

1) Work-related social support group
2) Therapy group
3) Task group
4) Community committee


2) Therapy group

Rationale:
Therapy groups are designed to help individual members cope with issues, such as the death of a spouse, divorce, or motherhood. Work-related social support groups help members of a profession cope with work-associated stress. Task groups meet to accomplish a specified task. Community-based committees meet to discuss community issues.

A mother comes to the emergency department after receiving a phone call informing her that her son was involved in a motor vehicle accident. When she approaches the triage desk, she frantically asks, "How is my son?" Which response by the nurse is best?

1) "He's being examined now; he's awake and talking. We'll take you to see him soon."
2) "Don't worry, I'm sure he'll be fine; we have an excellent trauma team caring for him."
3) "Everything will be okay; please take a seat and I'll check on him for you."
4) "Your son is strong and has youth on his side; I'm sure he'll be fine."


1) "He's being examined now; he's awake and talking. We'll take you to see him soon."

Rationale:
By telling the mother that her son is awake and talking and being examined by the doctor, the nurse provides accurate information and helps reduce the mother's anxiety. Responses such as "Don't worry, everything will be okay" and "I'm sure he'll be fine" offer false reassurance and fail to respect the mother's concern.

During a presentation at a nursing staff meeting, the unit manager speaks very slowly with a monotone. She uses medical and technical terminology to convey her message. Dressed in business attire, the manager stands erect and smiles occasionally while speaking. Which elements of her approach are likely to cause the staff to lose interest in what she has to say? Select all answers that apply.

1) Slow speech
2) Monotone
3) Occasional smile
4) Formal dress


1) Slow speech
2) Monotone

Rationale:
Speaking slowly with a monotone can contribute to reduced attention as the listener can think faster than the speaker is speaking, and the monotone voice has an almost hypnotizing effect. Smiling improves personal interest and connection between the speaker and listener so should not cause a loss of interest. Wearing formal business attire would not directly detract from listeners' engagement in the speaker's message unless it was unusual enough to distract listeners; nothing in the situation above indicates that is so.

Which factor(s) in the patient's past medical history place(s) him at risk for falling? Select all that apply.

1) Orthostatic hypotension
2) Appendectomy
3) Dizziness
4) Hyperthyroidism


1) Orthostatic hypotension
3) Dizziness

Rationale:
Orthostatic hypotension, cognitive impairment, difficulty with walking or balance, weakness, dizziness, and drowsiness from certain medications place the patient at risk for falling. A history of right appendectomy and hyperthyroidism do not place that patient at risk for falling.

The nurse is teaching a child and family about firearm safety. The nurse should instruct the child to take which step first if he sees a gun at a friend's house?

1) Leave the area.
2) Do not touch the gun.
3) Stop where he is.
4) Tell an adult.


3) Stop where he is.

Rationale:
The child should be instructed to stop where he is. This allows him to think about the next steps he has memorized. Next, he should avoid touching the gun, leave the area, and immediately go tell an adult.

A patient is agitated and continues to try to get out of bed. The nurse tries unsuccessfully to reorient him. What should the nurse do next?

1) Apply a vest restraint.
2) Move the patient to a quieter room.
3) Ask another nurse to care for the patient.
4) Provide comfort measures.


4) Provide comfort measures.

Rationale:
Patients sometimes become agitated because they are uncomfortable or in pain. Providing comfort measures may decrease agitation. If the patient continues to be agitated, the nurse should encourage a family member or friend to sit with the patient. Applying a physical restraint should be kept as a last resort for use only when less restrictive measures fail. The patient should be placed in a room near the nurses' station so he can be checked frequently if there is no one available to provide one-on-one supervision. A quieter room would probably not help.

While teaching a health promotion group of adults, the nurse notices one person who is clutching his throat with both hands. What should the nurse do first?

1) Call 9-1-1.
2) Encourage the person to cough vigorously.
3) Ask, "Are you choking?"
4) Give five back blows.


3) Ask, "Are you choking?"

Rationale:
Clutching the throat is the universal sign of choking. The first action when you suspect airway obstruction is to ask, "Are you choking?" If the person indicates "yes," or if the person cannot cough, speak, or breathe, that indicates choking. You must first be certain the person is choking because you can cause harm when you perform the choking maneuver. You would not call 9-1-1, encourage coughing, or give five back blows until you first establish that the person is choking. The client appears to be giving the universal sign for choking, but the nurse must validate the client's meaning before acting.

What should parents do to promote child safety in the home?

1) Attach the baby's pacifier to a ribbon so that it does not fall on the floor.
2) Give a 2-year-old whole grapes instead of popcorn for a snack.
3) Store firearms unloaded and out of sight in a location too high for the child to reach.
4) Install window guards; never leave a window wide open.


4) Install window guards; never leave a window wide open.
Rationale:
To prevent falls, install window guards and never leave a window wide open. A ribbon can become entangled around a small child's neck, causing asphyxiation. Young children can easily choke on a grape. Firearms should be unloaded, but stored in a locked cabinet. Children are curious and like to explore and climb. It would not be too difficult for a child to find a firearm stored, for example, on a high closet shelf.

What is the leading cause of unintentional death for the entire U.S. population?

1) Motor vehicle accidents
2) Poisoning
3) Choking
4) Falls


1) Motor vehicle accidents

Rationale:
The leading causes of unintentional death for the total population, in this order, are automobile accidents, poisoning, falls, and drowning.

Which change in hygiene practices may be necessary as the patient ages?

1) Brushing teeth twice a day
2) Bathing every other day
3) Decreasing moisturizer use
4) Increasing soap use


2) Bathing every other day

Rationale:
As a person ages, sebaceous glands become less active, causing skin to dry. Older people may find it necessary to bathe every 2 days, increase the use of moisturizers, and decrease soap use to prevent further drying of skin. Older adults should brush their teeth after every meal and at bedtime to prevent tooth decay. It is recommended that people of all ages brush their teeth at least twice a day, so that option does not represent a change in an older adult's hygiene practices.

A woman of Orthodox Jewish faith who underwent a hysterectomy for cancer is being cared for on the surgical floor. Which healthcare team member(s) could be assigned to bathe this patient? Choose all correct answers.

1) Male nursing assistant
2) Male licensed practical nurse
3) Female graduate nurse
4) Female registered nurse


3) Female graduate nurse
4) Female registered nurse

Rationale:
Orthodox Judaism prohibits personal care being provided by a member of the opposite sex. The patient who underwent a hysterectomy is female; therefore, out of respect for her religious beliefs, she should not be bathed by the male licensed practical nurse or nursing assistant.

A 75-year-old patient who is 5 feet 7 inches tall and weighs 170 pounds is admitted with dehydration. A nursing diagnosis of Risk for Impaired Skin Integrity is identified for this patient. Which factor places the client at Risk for Impaired Skin Integrity?


Dehydration

Rationale:
Dehydration places the patient at risk for impaired skin integrity. Dehydration, caused by fluid volume deficit, causes the skin to become dry and crack easily, impairing skin integrity. People who are very thin or very obese are more likely to experience impaired skin integrity. This patient is of normal height and weight; therefore, his body stature does not place him at risk. There is nothing to suggest that this patient has an impaired nutritional status.

The nurse notes a lesion that appears to be caused by tissue compression on the right hip of a patient who suffered a stroke 5 days ago. How should the nurse document this finding?

1) Maceration
2) Abrasion
3) Excoriation
4) Pressure ulcer


4) Pressure ulcer

Rationale:
The nurse should document a lesion caused by tissue compression and inadequate perfusion as a pressure ulcer. Abrasion, a rubbing away of the epidermal layer of skin, is commonly caused by shearing forces that occur when a patient moves or is moved in bed. Maceration is a softening of skin from prolonged moisture. Excoriation is a loss of the superficial layers of the skin caused by the digestive enzymes in feces.

The charge nurse asks the nursing assistive personnel (NAP) to give a bag bath to a patient with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. How should the NAP proceed?

1) Bathe the patient's entire body using 8 to 10 washcloths.
2) Assist the patient to a chair and provide bathing supplies.
3) Saturate a towel and blanket in a plastic bag, and then bathe the patient.
4) Assist the patient to the bathtub and provide a bath chair.


1) Bathe the patient's entire body using 8 to 10 washcloths.

Rationale:
A towel bath is a modification of the bed bath in which the NAP places a large towel and a bath blanket into a plastic bag, saturates them with a commercially prepared mixture of moisturizer, nonrinse cleaning agent, and water; warms in them in a microwave, and then uses them to bathe the patient. A bag bath is a modification of the towel bath, in which the NAP uses 8 to 10 washcloths instead of a towel or blanket. Each part of the patient's body is bathed with a fresh cloth. A bag bath is not given in a chair or in the tub.

For a morbidly obese patient, which intervention should the nurse choose to counteract the pressure created by the skin folds?

1) Cover the mattress with a sheepskin.
2) Keep the linens wrinkle free.
3) Separate the skin folds with towels.
4) Apply petrolatum barrier creams.


2) Keep the linens wrinkle free.

Rationale:
Separating the skin folds with towels relieves the pressure of skin rubbing on skin. Sheepskins are not recommended for use at all. Petrolatum barrier creams are used to minimize moisture caused by incontinence.

A client exhibits all of the following during a physical assessment. Which of these is considered a primary defense against infection?

1) Fever
2) Intact skin
3) Inflammation
4) Lethargy


2) Intact skin

Rationale:
Intact skin is considered a primary defense against infection. Fever, the inflammatory response, and phagocytosis (a process of killing pathogens) are considered secondary defenses against infection.

A client with a stage 2 pressure ulcer has methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) cultured from the wound. Contact precautions are initiated. Which rule must be observed to follow contact precautions?

1) A clean gown and gloves must be worn when in contact with the client.
2) Everyone who enters the room must wear a N-95 respirator mask.
3) All linen and trash must be marked as contaminated and send to biohazard waste.
4) Place the client in a room with a client with an upper respiratory infection.


1) A clean gown and gloves must be worn when in contact with the client.

Rationale:
A clean gown and gloves must be worn when any contact is anticipated with the client or with contaminated items in the room. A respirator mask is required only with airborne precautions, not contact precautions. All linen must be double-bagged and clearly marked as contaminated. The client should be placed in a private room or in a room with a client with an active infection caused by the same organism and no other infections.

A client requires protective isolation. Which client can be safely paired with this client in a client-care assignment? One

1) admitted with unstable diabetes mellitus.
2) who underwent surgical repair of a perforated bowel.
3) with a stage 3 sacral pressure ulcer.
4) admitted with a urinary tract infection.


1) admitted with unstable diabetes mellitus.

Rationale:
The client with unstable diabetes mellitus can safely be paired in a client-care assignment because the client is free from infection. Perforation of the bowel exposes the client to infection requiring antibiotic therapy during the postoperative period. Therefore, this client should not be paired with a client in protective isolation. A client in protective isolation should not be paired with a client who has an open wound, such as a stage 3 pressure ulcer, or with a client who has a urinary tract infection.

Which action demonstrates a break in sterile technique?

1) Remaining 1 foot away from nonsterile areas
2) Placing sterile items on the sterile field
3) Avoiding the border of the sterile drape
4) Reaching 1 foot over the sterile field


4) Reaching 1 foot over the sterile field

Rationale:
Reaching over the sterile field while wearing sterile garb breaks sterile technique. While observing sterile technique, healthcare workers should remain 1 foot away from nonsterile areas while wearing sterile garb, place sterile items needed for the procedure on the sterile drape, and avoid coming in contact with the 1-inch border of the sterile drape.

A mother who breastfeeds her child passes on which antibody through breast milk?
1) IgA
2) IgE
3) IgG
4) IgM


3) IgG

Rationale:
The antibody IgG is passed to the child through the mother's breast milk during breastfeeding. IgA, IgE, and IgM are produced by the child's body after exposure to an antigen.

What is the rationale for hand washing? Hand washing is expected to remove:

1) transient flora from the skin.
2) resident flora from the skin.
3) all microorganisms from the skin.
4) media for bacterial growth.


1) transient flora from the skin.

Rationale:
There are two types of normal flora: transient and resident. Transient flora are normal flora that a person picks up by coming in contact with objects or another person (e.g., when you touch a soiled dressing). You can remove these with hand washing. Resident flora live deep in skin layers where they live and multiply harmlessly. They are permanent inhabitants of the skin and cannot usually be removed with routine hand washing. Removing all microorganisms from the skin (sterilization) is not possible without damaging the skin tissues. To live and thrive in humans, microbes must be able to use the body's precise balance of food, moisture, nutrients, electrolytes, pH, temperature, and light. Food, water, and soil that provide these conditions may serve as nonliving reservoirs. Hand washing does little to make the skin uninhabitable for microorganisms, except perhaps briefly when an antiseptic agent is used for cleansing.

Which of the following incidents requires the nurse to complete an occurrence report?

1) Medication given 30 minutes after scheduled dose time
2) Patient's dentures lost after transfer
3) Worn electrical cord discovered on an IV infusion pump
4) Prescription without the route of administration


2) Patient's dentures lost after transfer

Rationale:
You would need to complete an occurrence report if you suspect your patient's personal items to be lost or stolen. A medication can be administered within a half-hour of the administration time without an error in administration; therefore, an occurrence report is not necessary. The worn electrical cord should be taken out of use and reported to the biomedical department. The nurse should seek clarification if the provider's order is missing information; an occurrence report is not necessary.

The nurse is orienting a new nurse to the unit and reviews source-oriented charting. Which statement by the nurse best describes source-oriented charting? Source-oriented charting:

1) Separates the health record according to discipline
2) Organizes documentation around the patient's problems
3) Highlights the patient's concerns, problems, and strengths
4) Is designed to streamline documentation


1) Separates the health record according to discipline

Rationale:
In source-oriented charting, each discipline documents findings in a separately labeled section of the chart. Problem-oriented charting organizes notes around the patient's problems. Focus® charting highlights the patient's concerns, problems, and strengths. Charting by exception is a unique charting system designed to streamline documentation.

When the nurse completes the patient's admission nursing database, the patient reports that he does not have any allergies. Which acceptable medical abbreviation can the nurse use to document this finding?

1) NA
2) NDA
3) NKA
4) NPO


3) NKA

Rationale:
The nurse can use the medical abbreviation NKA, which means no known allergies, to document this finding. NA is an abbreviation for not applicable. NDA is an abbreviation for no known drug allergies. NPO is an abbreviation that means nothing by mouth.

The nurse is working on a unit that uses nursing assessment flow sheets. Which statement best describes this form of charting? Nursing assessment flow sheets:

1) Are comprehensive charting forms that integrate assessments and nursing actions
2) Contain only graphic information, such as I&O, vital signs, and medication administration
3) Are used to record routine aspects of care; they do not contain assessment data
4) Contain vital data collected upon admission, which can be compared with newly collected data


1) Are comprehensive charting forms that integrate assessments and nursing actions

Rationale:
Nursing assessment flow sheets are organized by body systems. The nurse checks the box corresponding to the current assessment findings. Nursing actions, such as wound care, treatments, or IV fluid administration, are also included. Graphic information, such as vital signs, I&O, and routine care, may be found on the graphic record. The admission form contains baseline information.

At the end of the shift, the nurse realizes that she forgot to document a dressing change that she performed for a patient. Which action should the nurse take?

1) Complete an occurrence report before leaving.
2) Do nothing; the next nurse will document it was done.
3) Write the note of the dressing change into an earlier note.
4) Make a late entry as an addition to the narrative notes.


4) Make a late entry as an addition to the narrative notes.

Rationale:
If the nurse fails to make an important entry while charting, she should make a late entry as an addition to the narrative notes. An occurrence report is not necessary in this case. If documentation is omitted, there is no legal verification that the procedure was performed. It is illegal to add to a chart entry that was previously documented. The nurse can only document care directly performed or observed. Therefore, the nurse on the incoming shift would not record the wound change as performed.

The client asks the nurse why an electronic health record (EHR) system is being used. Which response by the nurse indicates an understanding of the rationale for an EHR system?

1) It includes organizational reports of unusual occurrences that are not part of the client's record.
2) This type of system consists of combined documentation and daily care plans.
3) It improves interdisciplinary collaboration that improves efficiency in procedures.
4) This type of system tracks medication administration and usage over 24 hours.


3) It improves interdisciplinary collaboration that improves efficiency in procedures.

Rationale:
The EHR has several benefits for use, including improving interdisciplinary collaboration and making procedures more accurate and efficient. An occurrence report is an organizational record of an unusual occurrence or accident that is not a part of the client's record. Integrated plans of care (IPOC) are a combined charting and care plan format. A medication administration record (MAR) is used to document medications administered and their usage.

In the United States, the first programs for training nurses were affiliated with:

1) The military
2) General hospitals
3) Civil service
4) Religious orders


4) Religious orders

Rationale:
When the Civil War broke out, the Army used nurses who had already been trained in religious orders. Although the Army did provide some training, it occurred later than in the religious orders. Although nurses were trained in hospitals, the training and the hospitals were affiliated with religious orders. Civil service was not mentioned in Chapter 1 and was not a factor in the early 1800s. Nursing started with religious orders. The Hindu faith was the first to write about nursing. In the United States, all training for nurses was affiliated with religious orders until after the Civil War.

Which of the following is/are an example(s) of a health restoration activity? Select all that apply.

1) Administering an antibiotic every day
2) Teaching the importance of hand washing
3) Assessing a client's surgical incision
4) Advising a woman to get an annual mammogram after age 50 years


1) Administering an antibiotic every day
3) Assessing a client's surgical incision

Rationale:
Health restoration activities help an ill client return to health. This would include taking an antibiotic every day and assessing a client's surgical incision. Hand washing and mammograms both involve healthy people who are trying to prevent illness.

Which of the following aspects of nursing is essential to defining it as both a profession and a discipline?

1) Established standards of care
2) Professional organizations
3) Practice supported by scientific research
4) Activities determined by a scope of practice


3) Practice supported by scientific research

Rationale:
The American Nurses Association (ANA) has developed standards of care, but they are unrelated to defining nursing as a profession or discipline. Having professional organizations is not included in accepted characteristics of either a profession or a discipline. A profession must have knowledge that is based on technical and scientific knowledge. The theoretical knowledge of a discipline must be based on research, so both are scientifically based. Having a scope of practice is not included in accepted characteristics of either a profession or a discipline.

The charge nurse on the medical surgical floor assigns vital signs to the nursing assistive personnel (NAP) and medication administration to the licensed vocational nurse (LVN). Which nursing model of care is this floor following?

1) Team nursing
2) Case method nursing
3) Functional nursing
4) Primary nursing


3) Functional nursing

Rationale:
With team nursing, an RN or LVN is paired with a NAP. The pair is then assigned to render care for a group of patients. In case method nursing, one nurse cares for one patient during her entire shift. Private duty nursing is an example of this care model. This medical surgical floor is following the functional nursing model of care, in which care is partitioned and assigned to a staff member with the appropriate skills. For example, the NAP is assigned vital signs, and the LVN is assigned medication administration. When the primary nursing model is utilized, one nurse manages care for a group of patients 24 hours a day, even though others provide care during part of the day.

A patient who suffered a stroke has difficulty swallowing. Which healthcare team member should be consulted to assess the patient's risk for aspiration?

1) Respiratory therapist
2) Occupational therapist
3) Dentist
4) Speech therapist


4) Speech therapist

Rationale:
Respiratory therapists provide care for patients with respiratory disorders. Occupational therapists help patients regain function and independence. Dentists diagnose and treat dental disorders. Speech and language therapists provide assistance to clients experiencing swallowing and speech disturbances. They assess the risk for aspiration and recommend a treatment plan to reduce the risk.

Which of the following is/are an example(s) of theoretical knowledge as defined in this chapter? Select all that apply.

1) Antibiotics are ineffective in treating viral infections.
2) When you take a patient's blood pressure, the patient's arm should be at heart level.
3) In Maslow's framework, physical needs are most basic.
4) When drawing medication out of a vial, inject air into the vial first.


1) Antibiotics are ineffective in treating viral infections.
3) In Maslow's framework, physical needs are most basic.

Rationale:
Theoretical knowledge consists of research findings, facts (e.g., "Antibiotics are ineffective . . ." is a fact), principles, and theories (e.g., "In Maslow's framework . . ." is a statement from a theory). Instructions for taking a blood pressure and withdrawing medications are examples of practical knowledge—what to do and how to do it.

Critical thinking and the nursing process have which of the following in common? Both:

1) Are important to use in nursing practice
2) Use an ordered series of steps
3) Are patient-specific processes
4) Were developed specifically for nursing

1) Are important to use in nursing practice

Rationale:
Nurses make many decisions: some require using the nursing process, whereas others are not client related but require critical thinking. The nursing process has specific steps; critical thinking does not. Neither is linear. Critical thinking applies to any discipline.

In which step of the nursing process does the nurse analyze data and identify client problems?

1) Assessment
2) Diagnosis
3) Planning outcomes
4) Evaluation


2) Diagnosis

Rationale:
In the assessment phase, the nurse gathers data from many sources for analysis in the diagnosis phase. In the diagnosis phase, the nurse identifies the client's health status. In the planning outcomes phase, the nurse formulates goals and outcomes. In the evaluation phase, which occurs after implementing interventions, the nurse gathers data about the client's responses to nursing care to determine whether client outcomes were met.

In which phase of the nursing process does the nurse decide whether her actions have successfully treated the client's health problem?


Evaluation

Rationale:
In the assessment phase, the nurse gathers data from many sources for analysis in the diagnosis phase. In the diagnosis phase, the nurse identifies the client's health status. In the planning outcomes phase, the nurse and client decide on goals they want to achieve. In the intervention planning phase, the nurse identifies specific interventions to help achieve the identified goal. During the implementation phase, the nurse carries out the interventions or delegates them to other health care team members. During the evaluation phase, the nurse judges whether her actions have been successful in treating or preventing the identified client health problem.

What is the most basic reason that self-knowledge is important for nurses? Because it helps the nurse to:

1) Identify personal biases that may affect his thinking and actions
2) Identify the most effective interventions for a patient
3) Communicate more efficiently with colleagues, patients, and families
4) Learn and remember new procedures and techniques


1) Identify personal biases that may affect his thinking and actions

Rationale:
The most basic reason is that self-knowledge directly affects the nurse's thinking and the actions he chooses. Indirectly, thinking is involved in identifying effective interventions, communicating, and learning procedures. However, because identifying personal biases affects all the other nursing actions, it is the most basic reason.

Arrange the steps of the nursing process in the sequence in which they generally occur. A. Assessment
B. Evaluation
C. Planning outcomes
D. Planning interventions
E. Diagnosis

1) E, B, A, D, C
2) A, B, C, D, E
3) A, E, C, D, B
4) D, A, B, E, C


3) A, E, C, D, B

Rationale:
Logically, the steps are assessment, diagnosis, planning outcomes, planning interventions, and evaluation. Keep in mind that steps are not always performed in this order, depending on the patient's needs, and that steps overlap.

How are critical thinking skills and critical thinking attitudes similar? Both are:

1) Influences on the nurse's problem solving and decision making
2) Like feelings rather than cognitive activities
3) Cognitive activities rather than feelings
4) Applicable in all aspects of a person's life

1) Influences on the nurse's problem solving and decision making

Rationale:
Cognitive skills are used in complex thinking processes, such as problem solving and decision making. Critical thinking attitudes determine how a person uses her cognitive skills. Critical thinking attitudes are traits of the mind, such as independent thinking, intellectual curiosity, intellectual humility, and fair-mindedness, to name a few. Critical thinking skills refer to the cognitive activities used in complex thinking processes. A few examples of these skills involve recognizing the need for more information, recognizing gaps in one's own knowledge, and separating relevant from irrelevant data. Critical thinking, which consists of intellectual skills and attitudes, can be used in all aspects of life.

The nurse is preparing to admit a patient from the emergency department. The transferring nurse reports that the patient with chronic lung disease has a 30+ year history of tobacco use. The nurse used to smoke a pack of cigarettes a day at one time and worked very hard to quit smoking. She immediately thinks to herself, "I know I tend to feel negatively about people who use tobacco, especially when they have a serious lung condition; I figure if I can stop smoking, they should be able to. I must remember how physically and psychologically difficult that is, and be very careful not to let be judgmental of this patient." This best illustrates:

1) Theoretical knowledge
2) Self-knowledge
3) Using reliable resources
4) Use of the nursing process


2) Self-knowledge

Rationale:
Personal knowledge (2) is self-understanding—awareness of one's beliefs, values, biases, and so on. That best describes the nurse's awareness that her bias can affect her patient care. Theoretical knowledge consists of information, facts, principles, and theories in nursing and related disciplines; it consists of research findings and rationally constructed explanations of phenomena. Using reliable resources is a critical thinking skill. The nursing process is a problem-solving process consisting of the steps of assessing, diagnosing, planning outcomes, planning interventions, implementing, and evaluating. The nurse has not yet met this patient, so she could not have begun the nursing process.

Which organization's standards require that all patients be assessed specifically for pain?

1) American Nurses Association (ANA)
2) State nurse practice acts
3) National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN)
4) The Joint Commission


4) The Joint Commission

Rationale:
The Joint Commission has developed assessment standards, including that all clients be assessed for pain. The ANA has developed standards for clinical practice, including those for assessment, but not specifically for pain. State nurse practice acts regulate nursing practice in individual states. The NCSBN asserts that the scope of nursing includes a comprehensive assessment but does not specifically include pain.

Which of the following is an example of data that should be validated?

1) The urinalysis report indicates there are white blood cells in the urine.
2) The client states she feels feverish; you measure the oral temperature at 98°F.
3) The client has clear breath sounds; you count a respiratory rate of 18.
4) The chest x-ray report indicates the client has pneumonia in the right lower lobe.


2) The client states she feels feverish; you measure the oral temperature at 98°F.

Rationale:
Validation should be done when subjective and objective data do not make sense. For instance, it is inconsistent data when the patient feels feverish and you obtain a normal temperature. The other distractors do not offer conflicting data. Validation is not usually necessary for laboratory test results.

Which of the following is an example of appropriate behavior when conducting a client interview?

1) Recording all the information on the agency-approved form during the interview
2) Asking the client, "Why did you think it was necessary to seek health care at this time?"
3) Using precise medical terminology when asking the client questions
4) Sitting, facing the client in a chair at the client's bedside, using active listening

4) Sitting, facing the client in a chair at the client's bedside, using active listening

Rationale:
Active listening should be used during an interview. The nurse should face the patient, have relaxed posture, and keep eye contact. Asking "why" may make the client defensive. Note-taking interferes with eye contact. The client may not understand medical terminology or health care jargon.

The nurse wishes to identify nursing diagnoses for a patient. She can best do this by using a data collection form organized according to (select all that apply):

1) A body systems model
2) A head-to-toe framework
3) Maslow's hierarchy of needs
4) Gordon's functional health patterns


3) Maslow's hierarchy of needs
4) Gordon's functional health patterns

Rationale:
Nursing models produce a holistic database that is useful in identifying nursing rather than medical diagnoses. Body systems and head-to-toe are not nursing models, and they are not holistic; they focus on identifying physiological needs or disease. Maslow's hierarchy is not a nursing model, but it is holistic, so it is acceptable for identifying nursing diagnoses. Gordon's functional health patterns are a nursing model.

The nurse is recording assessment data. She writes, "The patient seems worried about his surgery. Other than that, he had a good night." Which errors did the nurse make? Select all that apply.

1) Used a vague generality
2) Did not use the patient's exact words
3) Used a "waffle" word (e.g., appears)
4) Recorded an inference rather than a cue

1) Used a vague generality
3) Used a "waffle" word (e.g., appears)
4) Recorded an inference rather than a cue

Rationale:
The nurse recorded a vague generality: "he has had a good night." The nurse did not use the patient's exact words, but she did not quote the patient at all, so that is not one of her errors. The nurse used the "waffle" word, "seems" worried instead of documenting what the patient said or did to lead her to that conclusion. The nurse recorded these inferences: worried and had a good night.

A patient is admitted with shortness of breath, so the nurse immediately listens to his breath sounds. Which type of assessment is the nurse performing?
1) Ongoing assessment
2) Comprehensive physical assessment
3) Focused physical assessment
4) Psychosocial assessment

3) Focused physical assessment

Rationale:
The nurse is performing a focused physical assessment, which is done to obtain data about an identified problem, in this case shortness of breath. An ongoing assessment is performed as needed, after the initial data are collected, preferably with each patient contact. A comprehensive physical assessment includes an interview and a complete examination of each body system. A psychosocial assessment examines both psychological and social factors affecting the patient. The nurse conducting a psychosocial assessment would gather information about stressors, lifestyle, emotional health, social influences, coping patterns, communication, and personal responses to health and illness, to name a few aspects.

The nurse is assessing vital signs for a patient just admitted to the hospital. Ideally, and if there are no contraindications, how should the nurse position the patient for this portion of the admission assessment?
1) Sitting upright
2) Lying flat on the back with knees flexed
3) Lying flat on the back with arms and legs fully extended
4) Side-lying with the knees flexed

1) Sitting upright

Rationale:
If the patient is able, the nurse should have the patient sit upright to obtain vital signs in order to allow the nurse to easily access the anterior and posterior chest for auscultation of heart and breath sounds. It allows for full lung expansion and is the preferred position for measuring blood pressure. Additionally, patients might be more comfortable and feel less vulnerable when sitting upright (rather than lying down on the back) and can have direct eye contact with the examiner. However, other positions can be suitable when the patient's physical condition restricts the comfort or ability of the patient to sit upright.

For all body systems except the abdomen, what is the preferred order for the nurse to perform the following examination techniques?
A. Palpation
B. Auscultation
C. Inspection
D. Percussion
1) D, B, A, C
2) C, A, D, B
3) B, C, D, A
4) A, B, C, D


2) C, A, D, B

Rationale:
Inspection begins immediately as the nurse meets the patient, as she observes the patient's appearance and behavior. Observational data are not intrusive to the patient. When performing assessment techniques involving physical touch, the behavior, posture, demeanor, and responses might be altered. Palpation, percussion, and auscultation should be performed in that order, except when performing an abdominal assessment. During abdominal assessment, auscultation should be performed before palpation and percussion to prevent altering bowel sounds.

The nurse is assessing a patient admitted to the hospital with rectal bleeding. The patient had a hip replacement 2 weeks ago. Which position should the nurse avoid when examining this patient's rectal area?
1) Sims'
2) Supine
3) Dorsal recumbent
4) Semi-Fowler's


1) Sims'

Rationale:
Sims' position is typically used to examine the rectal area. However, the position should be avoided if the patient has undergone hip replacement surgery The patient with a hip replacement can assume the supine, dorsal recumbent, or semi-Fowler's positions without causing harm to the joint. Supine position is lying on the back facing upward. The patient in dorsal recumbent is on his back with knees flexed and soles of feet flat on the bed. In semi-Fowler's position, the patient is supine with the head of the bed elevated and legs slightly elevated.

How should the nurse modify the examination for a 7-year-old child?
1) Ask the parents to leave the room before the examination.
2) Demonstrate equipment before using it.
3) Allow the child to help with the examination.
4) Perform invasive procedures (e.g., otoscopic) last.


2) Demonstrate equipment before using it.

Rationale:
The nurse should modify his examination by demonstrating equipment before using it to examine a school-age child. The nurse should make sure parents are not present during the physical examination of an adolescent, but they usually help younger children feel more secure. The nurse should allow a preschooler to help with the examination when possible, but not usually a school-age child. Toddlers are often fearful of invasive procedures, so those should be performed last in this age group. It is best to perform invasive procedures last for all age groups; therefore, this does not represent a modification.

The nurse must examine a patient who is weak and unable to sit unaided or to get out of bed. How should she position the patient to begin and perform most of the physical examination?
1) Dorsal recumbent
2) Semi-Fowler's
3) Lithotomy
4) Sims'


2) Semi-Fowler's

Rationale:
If a patient is unable to sit up, the nurse should place him lying flat on his back, with the head of the bed elevated. Dorsal recumbent position is used for abdominal assessment if the patient has abdominal or pelvic pain. The patient in dorsal recumbent is on his back with knees flexed and soles of feet flat on the bed. Lithotomy position is used for female pelvic examination. It is similar to dorsal recumbent position, except that the patient's legs are well separated and thighs are acutely flexed. Feet are usually placed in stirrups. Fold sheet or bath blanket crosswise over thighs and legs so that genital area is easily exposed. Keep patient covered as much as possible. The patient in Sim's position is on left side with right knee flexed against abdomen and left knee slightly flexed. Left arm is behind body; right arm is placed comfortably. Sims' position is used to examine the rectal area. In semi-Fowler's position, the patient is supine with the head of the bed elevated and legs slightly elevated.

The nurse should use the diaphragm of the stethoscope to auscultate which of the following?
1) Heart murmurs
2) Jugular venous hums
3) Bowel sounds
4) Carotid bruits


3) Bowel sounds

Rationale:
The bell of the stethoscope should be used to hear low-pitched sounds, such as murmurs, bruits, and jugular hums. The diaphragm should be used to hear high-pitched sounds that normally occur in the heart, lungs, and abdomen.

The nurse calculates a body mass index (BMI) of 18 for a young adult woman who comes to the physician's office for a college physical. This patient is considered:
1) Obese
2) Overweight
3) Average
4) Underweight


4) Underweight

Rationale:
For adults, BMI should range between 20 and 25; BMI less than 20 is considered underweight; BMI 25 to 29.9 is overweight; and BMI greater than 30 is considered obese.








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