An involuntary response to a stimulus (an involuntary action) called reflex.

1. Sucking Reflex - 

  • If cheek of child touch from one side of mouth then neonate turn the head in same direction and start to suck.
  • Appear in 14 weeks of intra uterine life.
  • Disappear at 4 months if child awakening or 7 month if sleeping.
2. Rooting Reflex - 

  • The infant turn his head towards any object that touch his cheek and actively seek the nipple and start to suck.
  • It appears at 34 weeks of intra uterine life & disappears at 3-4 month.
3. Swallowing Reflex - 

  • Neonate, swallow after sucking.
  • Swallowing reflex appears after 34 weeks of intra uterine life.
  • New born, born at 32-34 weeks have minor sucking reflex but cannot swallow well, so they have risk of aspiration.
4. Tonic-neck Reflex or Fencing Reflex - 

  • If head of new born turn one side, then arm and leg of same side extend & opposite arm & leg are flex.
  • Disappear within 3-4 month.
  • If this reflex present after 6 months, it is abnormal and which indicate spastic cerebral palsy.
5. Grasp Reflex - 

  • New born grasp if any object put on palm (palmar grasp) and soles (planter grasps).
  • Present at birth and disappear within 3 month (palmar) and 8 month (planter).
  • It may reappear later in life if an individual suffers an injury to the frontal lobes of the brain.
6. Moro's Reflex -  

  • When loud voice is made or if new born hold in semi sitting position (45 degree) and then allow the head & trunk to dropped back side (at 30 degree angle) then rapid abduction & extension of the arms and fanning of fingers (making 'C' shape with thumb) occur.
  • Disappear within 3 month (in 90% babies).
  • Indicate abnormal if present after 6 month.
7. Babinski's Reflex - 
  • Gentle stroking of lateral aspect of sole in 'J' shape, cause newborn's big toes to dorsi-flexes downward & fingers are hyper-extend.
  • Disappear in 6 month and it is normal under 12 months due to incomplete myelinization of axons.
  • It is a normal reflex if in infants under the age of 6 months but indicates a lesion of the pyramidal (corticospinal) tract in older individuals.
8. Doll's eye Reflex - 
  • As head is moved to right or left, eyes are lag behind and do not adjust to new position.
  • Disappear at 3-4 month.
9. Extrusion Reflex - 
  • When tongue is touched or depressed, infant respond by forcing it outward
  • Disappear at 4 month.
10. Blinking Reflex - 
  • Sudden closing of the eyelids in response to turning of head, loud noises, bright lights or visual threats.
  • It doesn't disappear 
  • Absence of this reflex occurs in blindness & in injuries to cranial nerves III, V, and VII.
11. Gag Reflex -
  • Gagging and vomiting resulting from irritation of the throat or pharynx. It persists lifelong.


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